Симптом Мельникова, проба
Exercise 1.Choose the one best answer to each question from the text.
1. Is American English a language or a variety of the English language?
a) a variety b) a dialect c) a language
2. Does American English observe strict rules?
a) no rules at all b) strict rules c) not always
3. What is often used in American English?
a) proverbs b) idioms c) neologisms
4. Where can you find the main differences between American and British English?
a) in vocabulary b) in grammar c) in pronunciation
5. Are there many dialectal variations in American English?
a) many b) two major c) a few minor
Exercise 3.Below there are some examples of American idioms and their English meanings. Translate them into colloquial Russian.
1. Catch on? Do you understand?
2. We are working for peanuts. We are working for very low wages.
3. Dry up Be quiet!
4. What’s the catch? What’s the bad news?
5. Put on your best bib and tucker. Put on your best clothes.
6. Will he catch on? Will he discover the truth? 7. It’s a snow job. They are trying to fool us.
8. He is square. He is very formal.
9. It’s a lemon! I’s faulty! It’s worthless!
10. Way to go! Wonderful!
Exercise 4. Below there are two texts which mean the same but one
is written in conversational American English and the
other - in a more formal, relatively idiom - free English.
Make a little idiom dictionary.
1. Sam is a real cool cat. He never blows his stack; he hardly ever flies off the handle. What’s more, he knows how to get away with things. . . . Well, of course, he is getting on, too. His hair is pepper and salt, but he knows how to make up for lost time by taking it easy. He gets up early, works out and turns in early. He takes care of the hot dog stand like a breeze until he gets time off. Sam’s got it made; this is it for him.
- Sam is a really calm person. He never loses control of himself; he hardly becomes very angry. Furthermore, he knows how to manage his business financially by using a few tricks. . . . Needless to say, he is also getting older. His hair is beginning to turn gray, but he knows how to compensate for wasted time by relaxing. He rises early, exercises, and goes to bed early. He manages his frankfurter stand without visible effort, until it is someone else’s turn to work there. Sam is successful, he has reached his life’s goal.
Exercise 5.Here are some more Americanisms. Write their
equivalents in British English.
1. He ain’t gonna help. 6. I gotta go.
2 . Monday thru Friday. 7. Did you have a good vacation?
3. Boy, he was real mad! 8. Wonna cookie?
4. I arrived in the fall. 9. Waiter! The check, please.
5. I’m going downtown. 10. What did you do on the weekend?
Enquiry Letters. Making Plans
An enquiry letter states the aim of the letter and conditions on which the author would like to achieve the aim. (for example, the name of equipment; its quality and quantity; the model; the terms of delivery; the price)
Primrose & Co
Dear Mr Hemingway,
We are much interested in the new line of gold extraction advertised by you in the recent issue of “The Metallurgy”. The advertisement however, does not give sufficient information about the specifications, price, and terms of delivery.
Therefore we should appreciate further details as soon as possible.
We hope to establish long-term business relations with your company and look forward to hearing from you soon.
Ben - Hi, Susan. Haven’t seen you for ages. How are things?
Susan - Great. We are busy with a new line of gold extraction.
Ben - Sounds interesting. Are you going to apply for a patent soon?
Susan - Yes, we are. We are preparing the necessary papers now.
Ben - And how about the market research?
Susan - Oh, there is a good market not only here but abroad, as well.
Ben - Then I advise you to start a good promotional campaign.
Susan - Without doubt. Sorry, I must dash now.
Ben - Bye then, it was nice to meet you again.
Exercise 1.Write an enquiry letter about a new model of PC. Use the
phrases given above and some additional phrases like:
We require; we are regular buyers of; we are in the market for;
we learned from . . . that you are exporters of;
could you send us your quotation for . . .;
please, inform us what is the price of your new model/ what are your terms of delivery.
Exercise 2.Make a dialogue. You and your friend are making plans to
set up a new business. Use the phrases from the dialogue given
above and some additional patterns.
to go into business with smb; to get along well; to run a risk in one’s business; to be liable; to invest money; to contribute skills/name/reputation; to distribute profits and losses; to share profits and losses equally; the production targets; to keep abreast of.
Exercise 3.Listen to the short lecture and choose the best answers
from the four given.
1. What US agency controls the Patent Office?
a) The State Department b) The Treasury Department
c) The Department of Commerce d) The Department of Agriculture
2. For how long is a patent in the US granted?
a) for seven years b) for seventy years c) for seventy seven years
d) for seventeen years
3. Who is responsible for administering the patent laws?
a) Patent examiners who are trained in technical fields
b) The President of the US
c) The Director of the US Patent Office
d) Government officials from the applicant’s home state
I. ОБЩИЕ.. 3
II. патология органов брюшной полости.. 3
ОСТРАЯ КИШЕЧНАЯ НЕПРОХОДИМОСТЬ.. 13
ПЕРФОРАЦИЯ ПОЛОГО ОРГАНА.. 23
ВНУТРЕННЕЕ КРОВОТЕЧЕНИЕ.. 26
АБСЦЕССЫ БРЮШНОЙ ПОЛОСТИ.. 28
ЖЕЛУДОК, 12-ТИ ПЕРСТНАЯ КИШКА.. 29
УЩЕМЛЕННЫЕ ГРЫЖИ.. 32
III. ОНКОЛОГИЯ.. 34
IY. ПАТОЛОГИЯ СОСУДОВ.. 39
Y. ТРОМБОЭМБОЛИЯ ЛЕГОЧНОЙ АРТЕРИИ.. 50
YI. заболевания ПИЩЕВОДа.. 50
YII. патология органов ГРУДной полости.. 51
YIII. ЭНДОКРИНОЛОГИЯ.. 56
IX. НЕОТЛОЖНАЯ УРОЛОГИЯ.. 57
X. НЕОТЛОЖНАЯ ГИНЕКОЛОГИЯ.. 59
XI. ТРАВМА.. 60
ВЕРХНЯЯ КОНЕЧНОСТЬ.. 61
НИЖНЯЯ КОНЕЧНОСТЬ.. 64
Симптом Мельникова, проба.
Мельникова с. – для контроля за развитием отека конечности при газовой гангрене накладывают шелковую лигатуру на окружность конечности и наблюдают за быстротой и степенью врезания ее.