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I am a second-year student of the Bratsk State University. My future profession is engineering computer control. I am going to tell you about my future speciality.

As a matter of fact, the rapid rate of progress is fueled by research in manufacturing systems, as well as innovations in information technology (IT). Looking at this contributing discipline, we can see that IT has been a powerful driver in manufacturing. Design and manufacture of new products requires processing of huge amounts of information to ensure quality, satisfy customers needs, and meet environmental standards. Increasingly, manufacturers use IT for modeling and simulation to construct “virtual” tools and factories. Similarly, computer networking helps manufactures integrate all aspects of their operations, from design to the assembly line, shipping, and marketing. Obviously, these applications of IT reduce the time and cost of developing and testing new products and allow them to reach their markets faster and more efficiently.

Manufacturers are increasingly incorporating computers and other forms of modern technology into the workplace, both on the factory floor and on the office desktop. Nowadays it is difficult to identify a “low-tech” manufacturer: most of them use computer-aided design (CAD), have incorporated local area networks (LANs) into their operations, and have adopted “just-in-time” inventory techniques.

Manufacturing is one of the most important application areas for IT. Due to computers manufacturing processes have greatly advanced. No doubt computers gave rise to the development of numerical-control machines.

Actually, the introduction of microprocessors and computers made possible evolution of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of an input device. The computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.

It is necessary to mention that there are several ways of using a computer in industry: programmable automation, flexible automation and the flexible manufacturing system

As for programmable automation, it is a form of automation for producing products in large quantities. For each new product the equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer program. A numerical-control-machine-tool is a good example of program-mable automation.

As for flexible automation, it is a kind of programmable automation. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment is carried out at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.

A computer in the flexible manufacturing system can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

It should be emphasized that the end result of industrial computerizing is substantial increase in productivity, as reflected in savings of money and manpower throughout the manufacturing sector. I believe that our ability to harness the power and promise of leading-edge advances in technology will determine in large measure our national prosperity, security, and global influence, and with them the standard of living and quality of life of our people.

 

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

быстрое развитие; научные изыскания в производстве; мощный двигатель производства; требует обработки данных; большие объемы информации; обеспечить качество; соответствовать экологическим нормам; безусловно; использование информационных технологий; сократило время и снизило стоимость; развитие и испытание новой продукции; внедряют компьютеры и другие формы современных технологий; передовые инновационные технологии; сферы применения; развитие автоматизированного проектирования и автоматизированного производства; проектировщик чертит деталь; устройством ввода указывает ее размеры; компьютер автоматически посылает команды; изготавливать деталь; станок с числовым программным управлением; автоматизация с применением программируемых устройств; гибкая автоматизация; производственное оборудование; разнообразная продукция; сразу одна за другой; конечный результат; значительное повышение производительности труда; экономия средств и численности рабочей силы; перспектива скорого технологического прогресса; процветание государства;

 

Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

  1. What is your future speciality?
  2. What fuels a rapid rate of progress?
  3. Why do you think modern design and manufacture cannot do without IT?
  4. How does application of IT in manufacturing systems contribute to national economy?
  5. What manufacturer can we identify as a “high-tech” manufacturer?
  6. Why does evolution of CAD and CAM technologies become possible?
  7. What ways of using a computer in industry do you know?
  8. What is the best example of programmable automation?
  9. What are the limitations of programmable automation?
  10. What are the advantages of flexible automation?
  11. Why is the flexible manufacturing system considered most productive?
  12. Why do you think industrial computerizing is of great importance nowadays?

 

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