I. Read and translate Text “The Invention of Radio ”
Popov’s Scientific Predessors
The path to Popov’s great discovery was marked by the investigations of many scientists in different countries.
Popov’s scientific accomplishment was the culmination of the efforts of several generations of scientists, whose works make up the early history of radio which began with the investigations of Faraday.
Faraday’s discovery of electromagnetic rotation and electromagnetic induction laid the foundation of present-day electrical engineering.
His natural-scientific conception created a revolution in the understanding of electrical phenomena, and are extremely important because they directed all attention to the medium surrounding the electrified body. Faraday’s theory of magnetic and electric lines of force proved to be exceedingly fruitful, and served as a starting point for J.C. Maxwell to deduce mathematically (and Hertz to detect experimentally) the existence of free electric waves. Later it was found that as early as 1832 Faraday himself was close to what triumphed in science more than half a century later.
Faraday’s scientific views were developed by his successor Maxwell, who worked in many fields of physics, mechanics, and even astronomy. However, his chief works are investigations in electromagnetism and in the kinetic theory of gasses. Continuing Faraday’s work Maxwell subjected his ideas to mathematical treatment and arrived at far-reaching conclusions when he advanced the electromagnetic theory of light, one of the greatest achivements of the 19th century.
Of extraordinary value to radio was Maxwell’s conception of free electromagnetic waves, whose real existence was proved to the scientific world by the experimental investigations of Here. But this was a whole decade after the death of J. Clerk Maxwell who did not live to see his views accepted.
Deeply convinced of the truth of the Faraday – Maxwell theory Hertz set himself the task of proving experimentally the existence of free electromagnetic waves, he established the fact that they are governed by the same laws (reflection, refraction and polarization) at light waves. One of the most brilliant experimenters in the history of natural science (let us not forget that he had not yet reached theage of 37 when he died), Hertz made experiments that served as a basis for the invention of wireless telegraphy. These experiments had to do with the Hertz vibrator and resonator described in his first work entitled “Concerning Extremely Rapid Electric Oscillations”.
A.S. Popov’s Life-Story
Alexander Stepanovich Popov was born in March 1859 in the village of Turyinskiye Rudniky in the Urals. His father was a priest. There were six children in the family. In 1868 he entered the Primary Ecclesiastical College and then the Theological Seminary. Sasha was good at all the subjects but he was especially interested in model-making . He was fond of making various toys, models and primitive devices.
After the graduation from the seminary Popov entered Petersburg University and became a student of the scientific department. He was one of the most talented and hard working students.
In 1882 Popov graduated from the University and became a teacher at the Miner's School in Kronstadt. He did intensive academic and research work in the field of magnetism and electricity. At the Miner's School Popov worked for 18 years.
On the 25-th of May 1895 he made a report in the Physical Department of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society. His report was entitled "On the Relation of Metal Powders to Electric Oscillations".
This day, May 25, is considered to be the date of the invention of radio.
Popov arrived at his discovery not at once, he had conducted extensive research over a period of several years studying electric waves and oscillations.
The May 7-th address was a legal confirmation of Popov's right as the inventor of wireless telegraphy Popov was an original and experienced experimentor.
Popov was the first radio specialist to construct radio instruments as well as radio stations in Russia.
The first radiogram was received on the island of Gogland on January 24. It was an order of the Head of the Chief Naval Staft on the rendering of gid to Finnish fishermen, who had been carried out to sea on an ice-floe. The fishermen were saved.
In 1901 Popov became a professor of Peterburg Institute and in 1905 he was appointed the rector of this Institute. On the 13th of January 1906 Popov died at the age of 47. Alexander Stepanovich Popov was a prominent scientist, whose inventation of radio was of the greatest scientific importance.
II. Work out the questions for the answers about the text “ The Invention of Radio”.
1. Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic rotation and electromagnetic induction laid the foundation of present-day electrical engineering.
2. Faraday's theory of magnetic and electric lines of force proved to be exceedingly fruitful.
3. Faraday's scientific views were developed by his successor Maxwell.
4. Maxwell's chief works are investigations in electromagnetism and in the kinetic theory of gasses.
5. The greatest achievments of science of the 19th century was the electromagnetic theory of light.
6. Maxwell's conception of free electromagnetic waves was proved by the experimental investigations of Hertz.
III. Answer the following questions:
1. Who were Popov's scientific prodecessors?
2. Why did Faraday's natural-scientificconceptions create a revolution in the understanding of electrical phenomena?
3. What did Maxwell deduce mathematically?
4. Who developed Faraday's scientific views?
5. What fields did Maxwell work in?
6. What was one of the greatest achievments of science of the 19th century?
7. When were Maxwell's views accepted?
8. What kind of task did Hertz set himself?
9. What served as a basis for the invention of wireless telegraphy?
10.What was the title of Hertz first work?
IV. Complete the following statements by choosing the best answer.
1).Faraday's natural-scientific conceptions are extremely important because:
a) they deal with the medium surrounding the electrified body;
b) they deal with the theory of gravitation;
c) they deal with thekinetic theory.
2). Faraday's theory of magnetic and electric lines of force served as a starting point for:
a) A. S. Popov;
b) I. Newton;
c) J. C. Maxwell.
3). Maxwell advanced … .
a) the theory of gravitation;
b) the electromagnetic theory of light;
c) the theory of relativity.
V._Make up sentences of your own using the following words and phrases:
Investigation; to make up; rotation; to direct attention to; fruitful; successor; to subject; treatment; far-reaching; to predict; to propagate; decade; to prove; law; invention; application; to do liver lectures; as well as; above all; to install; to deal with.
VI. Choose explanation in List B for the words given in List A:
1.discovery 1. completion, finishing
2. accomplishment 2. one swing of a pendulum
3. rotation 3. smth that is discovered
4. to predict 4. to happen at the same
5. to coincide 5. to make smd feel certain
6. to convince 6. the regular coming
round of things
7. reflection 7. smth reflected
8. refraction 8. being refracted
9. vibrator 9. to tell in advance
10. oscillation 10. quality of being
useful or desirable
11. value 11. device that vibrates
VII. Read the Text "A.S. Popov's Life-Story" and put the jumbled sentences in the right order to get an organized text:
1. The first radiogram was received on the island of Gogland on January 24.
2. Popov was born in March 1859.
3. In 1901 Popov became a professor of Petersburg Institute.
4. In 1868 he entered the Primary Ecclisiastical College and then the Theological Seminary.
5. His father was a priest.
6. After the graduation from the seminary Popov entered Petersburg University.
7. May 25 is consided to be the date of the invention the radio.
8. On the 25th of May 1895 Popov made a report, which was entitled “On the relation of metal powders to electric oscillations”.
9. In 1882 Popov graduated from the University and became a teacher at the Miner’s school in Kronstadt.
10.Popov was the first radio specialist to construct radio instruments as well as radio station in Russia.
VIII. Complete the spaces. Use the words given below:
1. Sasha … at all the subjects, but he … especially … in model-making.
2. After … from the seminary Popov … Peterburg University.
3. He was one of the most talented and … students.
4. He did intensive academic and research work … magnetism and electricity.
5. On the 25-th of May 1895 he … a report.
6. May 25 is considered to be the date of the … of radio.
7. Popov arrived at his … not at once.
8. The invention of radio was of greatest scientific … .
Importance, was good, graduation, was interested, made, invention, discovery, entered, in the field of, hard-working.
IX. Read the Text “A.S. Popov’s Life-Story” once again and agree or disagree with the statements given below:
1. Alexander Stepanovich Popov was born in April 1859.
2. His father was an engineer.
3. There were six children in the family.
4. In 1868 he entered the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys.
5. In 1888 Popov graduated from the University.
6. In 1901 Popov became a dean of Petersburg Institute.
7. On the 13-th of January 1906 Popov died at the age of 47.
X. Change the given questions into the items of a plan for the text “A.S. Popov’s Life-Story”
1. When and where was A.S. Popov born?
2. What was his family like?
3. Where did Popov study?
4. What kind of student was Popov?
5. Where did Popov work after graduation from Petersburg University?
6. What date is considered to be the date of the invention of radio? Why?
7. When did Popov’s invention have its practical application?
8. What did Popov become in 1901?
9. When did he die?
XI. Speak about “A.S. Popov’s Life-Story”
XII. Read and translate the text. Time-limit 30 min.