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Экономика США





США богаты полезными ископаемыми. Основными полезными ископаемыми являются железная руда, уголь и нефть. США имеют высокоразвитую промышленность. Основные отрасли ее тяжелой промышленности — металлургическая, горнодобывающая, машиностроительная, автомобильная, химическая и военная. Многие отрасли легкой промышленности, такие, например, как химическая, текстильная и пищевая, также высоко развиты.

Большое внимание в США уделяется научно-исследовательской работе. За последние годы значительно возросло число ученых и инженеров, тогда как число рабочих возросло лишь на несколько процентов. Большое внимание уделяется также подготовке руководящих кадров.

Американская промышленность распределена неравномерно. Большая часть промышленных предприятий сосредоточена в восточной части страны. Однако имеется тенденция строить заводы и фабрики вдали от крупных промышленных центров, ближе к источникам сырья и рынкам.

США ведут торговлю со многими странами. Ведущими статьями экспорта являются электронное оборудование, изделия химической промышленности, текстиль, железо, уголь, нефтепродукты, зерно и другие товары.

Одной из ведущих отраслей американской промышленности является военная промышленность.

V. Speak about the economy of Great Britain, USA or any other country. Use the offered scheme.
1. ...is rich (poor) in natural resources. 2. It imports (exports) ... from (to) ... 3. It is a highly industrialised country. (It is an agricultural country.) 4. Its industry is located... 5. Nearly (Over) ... workers are employed in manufacturing work. 6. Special emphasis is being placed on the development of such industries as ... 7. In recent years new branches have been added to the traditional industries of the country, such as ... . 8. It is (not) profitable for the country to produce... because it has a lot of (very few) raw materials. 9. Great attention is also paid to the development of... 10. The country's share in the world industrial output has (greatly) increased (decreased) in the past few years. 11. It trades with... 12. The main articles of its import (export) are... 13. The demand for its products is (great; increasing with every passing year; decreasing). 14. It is very profitable for... to trade with... 15. The main crops grown in the country are ... .

VI. Answer the questions about the economy of the country you are interested in.
1. Is... rich in natural resources? What are its main natural resources? 2. Does it import raw materials from other countries? What raw materials does it import? From what countries? 3. What are its main industries? Where are the main industrial centres located? 4. Is it profitable for the country to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles? Why is it (not) ...? 5. Are many workers employed in manufacturing? How many ...? 6. Does ... trade with other countries? What countries ...? 7. Does it depend financially and economically on any other country? 8. Is the policy of its government influenced by any other country? By which country ...? 9. What is being done to intensify production and increase labour productivity? 10. What is being done to make the farmer's work more productive? 11. How is management training organised?

VII. Your friend has just come from the country you are interested in. Question him about the economical situation of this country.

D I A L O G U E S

Read the following dialogues. Reproduce them in pairs.

Talking Business

I

"I should like to speak to Mr. Grey."

"Have you an appointment?"

"No. But here is my card."

II

"Good morning, Mr. Grey. What can 1 do for you?"

"I've got a proposal to make. I think you know our firm."

"Yes, I do, but I've never had the pleasure of doing any business with you."

"Our firm has a great distributing business with branches in several countries. We suggest that you should act as our agents and handle ourbusiness in this country."

"What aboutthe terms of payment and other conditions?"

"We propose to allow you 2.5% (two and a half per cent) commission on all business transacted."

"I think it would suit us, but I've got to consult my partners first."

III

"We wish to inform you, Mr. Brown, that we are ready to give you technical assistance in the construction of the project."

"I am glad to hear it. Let's discuss the terms in detail."

IV

"We've reached agreement on the main points: the cost of equipment, the terms of payment and the terms of delivery."

"Well, let's consider the matter settled."

V

"We have carefully studied your draft contract and we believe the terms could be acceptable. Only we'd like to clear up some points."

"What particular points would you like to clear up?"

"The main point is the price of the equipment. It seems too high. Could you make it lower?"

"My partners and I will look into the matter again and in a couple of days we'll be ready to resume our discussions."

VI

"You have received our claim, haven't you? You are responsible for the delay in commissioning the plant."

"I think I've got to give you some explanation. The matter is that you failed to deliver the right material in time and that delayed us for several days, so we decline your claim."

Vocabulary

card do business with smb. handle smb.'s business terms of payment (delivery, etc.) commission draft contract (resolution, etc.) claim commission smth. give an explanation to smb. deliver smth. delay smb. (smth.) decline smb.'s claim (an invitation, etc.) зд. визитная карточка иметь деловые отношения скем-л. вести чьи-л. дела условия оплаты (доставки и т. п.) комиссионное вознаграждение проект контракта (резолюции и т. п.) претензия вводить что-л. в эксплуатацию давать разъяснение кому-л. доставлять что-л. задерживать, мешать кому-л. сделать что-л. вовремя; задерживать, откладывать, заменять что-л. отклонять чью-л. претензию (приглашение т. п.)

JUST FOR FUN

I. Read the following utterance. Express your opinion about it.

The secret of economy is to live as cheaply the first few days after pay-day as you lived the last few days before.

II. Read and translate the following jokes. Choose the joke you like most and retell it to your friend.

***

An economical housewife was told that by using a certain stove she would safe half the quantity of coal.

“ Oh, that’s very good,” she said, “I’ll have two and save the whole lot.”

***

"Why have you written the word 'bank' in the middle of a sentence with a capital 'B'?" asked the teacher.

"Because my pa said a bank was no good unless it had a large capital."

***

“I will save you $1,000," said an adventurer.

“You mean to give your daughter $10000 as a marriage portion”

"Yes, I do."

"Well, sir, I will take her with $9,000."






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