Anyone who does a lot of downloading, or accesses diskettes from the outside world on a regular basis should develop an antivirus strategy. The most important weapon in your antivirus arsenal is a clean, write-protected bootable system diskette. Booting from a clean write-protected diskette is the only way to start up your system without any viruses in memory. No virus scanner/cleaner of any quality will run if there is a virus in memory because more programs can be infected by the virus as the scanner opens the files to check them. This diskette should also contain a record of your hard disk's master boot record, partition table, and your computer's CMOSdata. Most antivirus packagescontain utilities that can store this information for you. Lastly, this diskette should contain your favorite scanning/cleaning software because a virus may have infected this program on your hard drive. Running it from a clean diskette will ensure that you're not spreading the virus further.

A second effective defense against viruses is a clean backup of your hard drive. Many antivirus packages will attempt to disinfect infected programs for you so that the virus is no longer in your system. However, there are times when removing the harmful code from programs or from the master boot record does not solve the problem completely. Some programs may not run properly because their code has been altered, or your system may not boot properly because of the alterations made to the master boot record. In addition, there are some viruses,

Midnight for example, that encryptsor scramblesthe data files associated with a program which are then descrambled by the virus when the program is executed. If you remove the virus from the program the data is still scrambled and the virus is not there anymore to descramble it. A good reliable backup ensures that all of these problems are solved and everything is back to normal. If you have files you can't afford to lose, make sure you have more than one copy of them. Programs may already be backed up on their original installation disks, but what about the files that you create? Business records, spreadsheets, manuscripts, and other important files can be lost in an instant to a virus, or to other causes, hard disk failureamong them. If no other copy of your files exists, make copies of them, before it's too late.

The third part of your antivirus strategy should be antivirus software, preferably more than one package since no one product can do everything. There are many products out there to help you guard against viruses. After all, no one but the author of the virus can bring valuable information on the way it should be treated and cured.





Unit l History of computers..3

Unit 2 Characteristics ..7

Unit 3 Hardware and Software12

Unit 4 Main Hardware 15

Unit 5 Motherboard.18

Unit 6 Removable storage...22

Unit 7 Optical auxiliary storage devices.26

Unit 8 Modems....30

Unit 9 Internet.36

Unit 10 Technology to be45

Supplementary reading . 52





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Unit l History of computers

I. Read and guess the meaning of the following international words:

Calculation, mechanical, logarithm, multiplication, mathematical, experiment, analytical, machine, result, fact, design, problem, idea, basis, computer, vacuum, instruction, reason, integrate, transistor, chip, plastic, metal, technology, transport.

II. Translate the following word combinations:

Calculating device, mechanical way of multiplying, logarithm table, calculating machine, analog computer, mathematical problem, vacuum tube, integrated circuit, computer technology, transport technology.

III. Memorize the following "false friends".

1. list -I. 1) ; ;

2) ,

II. , ;

2. control -I.1) , ;


3) , ;

4) , ;


. 1) , ;

2) , ;

3) , ;


IV. Phrases with prepositions for you to remember:

1. to depend on -

2. to cut out - ;

3. to provide s/th or s/b with- 1) , ;

2) ,

4. to be responsible for -

5. to figure out - 1) ;

2) ,

6. to come out - . ,

7. to encapsulate in - -,

8. at the rate of-

9. in tens -

10. in size - ,

11. except for -

12. due to - , (-); -

V. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the functions of the Infinitive:

1. We shall consider a very simple example in order to explainthis phenomenon. 2. Computer science is to be regardedas a new discipline. 3. It is quite necessary for him to makea great number of calculations to solvethe problem. 4. We know silver to bethe best of conducting materials. 5. Michael Faraday had little chance to getan education. 6. An attempt to forma theory of such systems was made by Professor Walt. 7. We expect the article to be publishednext year. 8. I believe him to have changedhis plans. 9. Radio and television continue to developand to findwider application in science and industry. 10. I saw the workers repairthe machine. 11. The fastest way to detectan artificial satellite is by radio. 12. We watched the robot performmany operations. 13. We are to studythe main laws of physics. 14. An electronic machine has to be used to makethese calculations.


VI. Change the following complex sentences given below according to the example and translate them:

Example: The process which will bedescribed in this article is known as ioni- zation.

The process to be described in this article is known as ionization.

1. The method which will be usedis reliable. 2. The results which will be receivedwill be published next month. 3. The data that are to be obtainedwill be of great interest. 4. The measurements that must be madeshould be accurate enough. 5. The experiments which will be demonstratedare closely related to our research. 6. The problem that must be solvedis very difficult. 7. The work that must be doneis of great importance. 8. The method that will be usedwas developed in our laboratory. 9. The equipment that is to be installedis very effective. 10. The instrument which will be usedmust make precise measurements.


VII. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive Constructions:

1. The professor made the students repeat the experiment. 2. We want them to receive this information as soon as possible. 3. We know the first atomic power station to have been built in the USSR. 4. The only thing for you to do is to use a microscope. 5. A material which allows electricity to flow through it is called a conductor. 6. We did not see them make this experiment. 7. For him to take this decision was not easy. 8. We think this work to be completed in a month. 9. Our professor wants us to use these data. 10. It was easy for our mechanic to repair this device. 11. Electronics enabled scientists to take pictures of the moon. 12. For the decision to be correct all facts must be considered.

VIII. Find the Infinitives in passages 2, 3, 4 and define their functions. In passage 6 find a conditional sentence and define its type.

IX. Read and translate the text:

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