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The Central processing Unit, Control Unit, Arithmetic-logical Unit,Memory or Main storage




[1] It is common practice in computer science for the words “computer” and “processor” to be used interchangeably. More precisely, “computer” refers to the central processing unit(CPU)together with an internal memory.The internal memory or main storage,control and processing components make up the heart of the computer system. Manufacturers design the CPU to control and carry out basic instructions for their particular computer.

[2] The CPU coordinates all the activities of the various components of the computer. It determines which operations should be carried out and in what order. The CPU can also retrieve information from memoryand can store the results of manipulations back into the memory unitfor later reference.

[3] In digital computers the CPU can be divided into two functional units called the control unit (CU)and the arithmetic-logical unit (ALU).These two units are made up of electronic circuits with millions of switches that can be in one of two states, either on or off.

[4] The function of the control unit within the central processor is to transmit coordinating control signals and commands. The control unit is that portion of the computer that directs the sequence or step-by-step operations of the system, selects instructions and data from memory, interprets the program instructions, and controls the flow between main storage and the arithmetic-logical unit.

[5] The arithmetic-logical unit, on the other hand, is that portion of the computer in which the actual arithmetic operations, namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation, called for in the instructions are performed. It also performs some kinds of logical operations such as comparing or selecting information. All the operations of the ALU are under the direction of the control unit.

[6] Programs and the data, on which the control unit and the ALU operate, must be in internal memory in order to be processed. Thus, if located on secondary memory devices such as disks or tapes, programs and data are first loaded into internal memory.

IX. Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why do you think so?

1. Main storage is not a part of the processor.

2. The CPU is made up of the control unit, arithmetic-logical unit and internal memory.

3. The CPU is composed of the arithmetic-logical unit and con­trol unit only.

X. Say "True” or "False ". If “False", correct the sentence. Rely on the information from the text.

1. The central processing unit is made up of three components.

2. The CPU is responsible for all the activities taking place within a computer.

3. The processor itself has three components.

4. The control unit directs the flow of information within the processor.

5. The arithmetic-logical unit of the processor is responsible for the interpretation of program instructions.

6. The arithmetic-logical unit is also responsible for choosing and comparing the appropriate information within a pro­gram.

7. The processor cannot operate on any information if that in­formation is not main storage.

8. Secondary memory and internal memory are located in the same place in the computer system.

9. Only after the data has been processed by the CPU can re­sults be transmitted to an output device.

10. Computers can solve problems more quickly if they operate on new information.

XI. Use the texts you have studied so far to complete the following table.

 

System Subsystem Parts Functions
Computer Input devices    
  Processor Memory  
      1.
      2.
      3.
      4.
    Arithmetic 1.
      2.
  Output    
  devices    

 

 

Unit 5 “Motherboard”

 

I. Read and guess the meaning of the following international words:

Personal, signal, voltage, technique, processor, infrastructure, function, component, personalize, enthusiast, microprocessor, specification, peripheral, architecture, cable, communicate.

 

II. Read the text and find English equivalents to the following word combinations:

Многослойная печатная схема; медные каналы схемы; методы послойного изготовления; короткое замыкание в цепи; синхронизирующий сигнал; посредством взаимосвязанных проводов; устройство, работающее от батарейки; исключает необходимость; данные, к которым недавно обращался центральный процессор; смонтированные на поверхности маленьких плат.

III. Phrases with prepositions for you to remember:

1. to be responsible for – отвечать (за), быть ответственным (за)

2. to allow for – предусматривать, учитывать, принимать во внимание

 

IV. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the Gerundial Construction:

1. I've heard of their experiment being successfully completed in the nearest future. 2. Mr. Brown’s taking part in the design of the new data processing system was of great help to us. 3. We were told about their having studied a number of problems connected with the development of computing machinery. 4. Mankind is interested in ato­mic energy being used only for peaceful purposes. 5. Benjamin Franklin's having invented the first lightning conductor is a well established fact. 6. We all know of their designing a new type of computer. 7. He men­tioned his having shown these slides at the conference. 8. Your having worked at the plant helped you to master technical subjects. 9. Kurchatov's having devoted all his life to nuclear physics is known to every­body. 10. I know of their being shown the new device. 11. We remembered having mentioned the works of this scientist. 12. We know of the Curies' having discovered some new radioactive elements. 13. We know of Rutherford's having investigated the nature of alpha-particles. 14. We insisted on the experiment being repeated. 15. There was no hope of their solving this complex engineering problem so soon.

V. Read the words and word combinations and memorize their meaning:

adapter card – адаптерная плата

to allow for – предусматривать, принимать во внимание, учитывать

expansion bus slot – гнездо подключения к шине расширения

miscellaneous – разнообразный, смешанный

flash BIOS – система BIOS, записанная во флэш-памяти

compatibility - совместимость

configuration jumper – конфигурационная перемычка (для выбора конфигурации устройства)

printed circuit – печатная схема

copper - медный

trace - трассировка

to resemble –напоминать, быть похожим

ground - заземление

insulated – изолированный, обособленный

to plug into – подключать(ся)

form factor – коэффициент формы, форм-фактор

to channel - направлять

to retrieve – извлекать, отыскивать

hardwired – подключенный с помощью провода

to erase - стирать

power connector – разъем питания

light-emitting diode - светодиод

timing - синхронизация

to etch - вытравливать

SCSI (small computer system interface) – «СКАЗИ», интерфейс малых компьютерных систем для подключения периферийных устройств, других компьютеров

shot-circuit – короткое замыкание, цепь короткого замыкания

intersection – пересечение, линия пересечения

to swap – менять, обменивать; swap out – разгрузка, откачка

cache – КЭШ (быстродействующая буферная память большой емкости)

to reside – находиться

volatile – непостоянный, энергозависимый

 

VI. Read and translate the text.


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