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What Is a System?




Many people don't know how the machines they commonly use work. Stereos, televisions, automobiles, and bicycles are examples of machines used by millions of people every day. We expect them to work perfectly. If they break, we often have no idea about what could be wrong or what to do about it. Something as simple as a dead battery can often make us frustrated with technology-related devices. Rather than try to learn something about how a machine works, some people say, "Well, I'm just not good with machines."

The fact is, you don't have to be a rocket scientist to understand the basic operation of machines and devices. Even the most complicated machines can be broken down into smaller systems. A system is a com­bination of parts that work together as a whole.

To make it easy for you, there is a general model that fits almost every system. The system model has only four parts: input, process, output, and feedback. Inputs are things that go into a system. It's easy to remember because you are putting things in. For example, in a comput­er system, you press keys to put instructions into the computer. The next step is to process the input instructions. In a computer system, the instructions are processed by the CPU. The process is what is done with your inputs. The final results of the process are called the output. Again, it's easy for you to remember this part because it is what comes out of the process. In our computer example, the output might be sound or graphics. If the system is working right, the output will be what you wanted from your input. Feedback is information about the output. It can be used to change the output so the result is what you want.The problem-solving strategy introduced in Text 4 is really just a system. You solve problems systematically. Systematically means simply that you are using a system. Even eating at a fast-food restaurant is systematic. For example, first you wait in line. Then you place your order, which is the input. Your order is processed by the workers. The output is your meal. Hopefully, it is what you ordered! If not, you might send it back. That's feedback!

The process of solving a problem is similar to the general system model.

 
 

 


Though there are many different kinds of systems, in technology you often use five basic energy systems to make a complete product. The energy systems are mechanical systems, electrical systems, fluid systems, thermal systems, and chemical systems. The five basic sys­tems can be used independently or in combination to make something work.

Almost any machine has one or more of these systems that make it work. A car, for example, is a complex machine made up of all five sys­tems. Here are some examples of how the five systems work together to make your car run:

- mechanical: door latches, fan belts, pulleys, gears;

- fluid: water pump, shock absorbers, hydraulic brakes;

– electrical: battery, lights, radio, ignition;

- thermal: radiator, air conditioner, heater;

- chemical: fuel, battery fluid, antifreeze.

These systems work independently and together to make a car run smoothly and safely. When a car isn't working right, the problem is found by carefully checking each system.

Engineers, designers, technicians, and architects must know how all five systems work alone and how they work together. People who under­stand technology can break these complicated systems down even further into smaller systems called subsystems. Subsystems make it even easier to understand how things work. For example, a bicycle is made mostly of parts in a mechanical system. You can divide that mechanical system into subsystems such as brakes, steering, chains, gears, and so on. If you understand how each bicycle subsystem works, it is easier to find and fix a problem.

 

Завдання 9Перекладіть рідною мовою підкреслені в Тексті 6 речення.

Завдання 10 Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:

 

1 The system model has only three parts: the input, process, and feedback.

2 Every day a lot of people use the stereos, televisions, automobiles and others things, which incorporate different kinds of systems.

3 If you want to understand the basic operation of machines and devices you have to be an expert in this field.

4 A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

5 The output is information about the input.

6 In technology, there are many different kinds of systems, but four of them are basic energy systems to make a complete product.

7 A car is a complex machine, and all the basic systems work together to make it run.

8 Engineers, designers and technicians do not have to know all the systems and how they function alone or all together.

9 The process of solving a problem might serve as an example of a general system model.

10 Complex systems can be broken down into subsystems.

Завдання 11Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

 

1 How many parts does the system model have?

2 What are these parts?

3 What do we call the things that go into a system?

4 What do we call the step that follows putting things in?

5 How do we call the information about the output?

6 How can we use feedback information?

7 What is given in the text as an example of a system model?

8 How many basic systems do you know?

9 What systems work together to make a car run?

10 Do you think all engineers should know how the five systems work alone and together?

Завдання 12 Розставте подані нижче речення в потрібній послідовності:

 

1 The result of the action is the output.

2 Something must be put in.

3 Feedback provides information about the results.

4 The general model of a system is simple to understand.

5 Then some action is taken.

6 A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

7 This information can be used to change the output if it is not what you want.

8 There is a general model that fits almost every system.

Завдання 13Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення, використовуючи вивчену раніше лексику та граматичні конструкції:

 

1 Багато різноманітних приладів використовується кожним із нас у повсякденному житті.

2 Кожен з цих приладів є системою.

3 Існує загальна модель, яку ми використовуємо, щоб описати систему.

4 Щоб ввести інформацію в комп’ютер, ви натискаєте клавішу.

5 Введена інформація обробляється спеціальним пристроєм.

6 Використовуючи екран монітора, ви одержуєте результат обробки введеної інформації.

7 Працювати в групі більш цікаво, ніж самому.

8 Використовуючи ідеї кожного члена групи, ми маємо більше шансів знайти кращу ідею.

9 З’ясувавши усі плюси та мінуси запропонованих ідей, ми знаходимо потрібне рішення.

10 Щоб бути творчою людиною, Вам потрібно розвивати свою уяву.

Завдання 14Наведіть приклади різних систем, використовуючи схему:

 

 


 


Завдання 15а) Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче текст, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.







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