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Экономика Великобритании

Великобритания - крупная капиталистическая страна. Она имеет высокоразвитую промышленность. Большая часть её населения занята в промышленности, и только небольшая часть - около 8 % населения - занимается сельским хозяйством.

В Великобритании не много полезных ископаемых. Она богата лишь углем и железной рудой, поэтому ей приходится ввозить сырьё из других стран. Недостаток сырья делает невыгодным для промышленности Англии производство полуфабрикатов и дешевых товаров. Характерной чертой Британской промышленности является производство товаров высокого качества, требующих квалифицированного труда.

Традиционными отраслями английской промышленности являются машиностроение, текстильная, судостроительная и угольная промышленность. Однако после первой мировой войны спрос на продукцию традиционных отраслей промышленности сократился, и Великобритания начала развивать новые отрасли промышленности, такие как химическая, авиационная и др.

Великобритания больше не является ведущей империалистической державой, какой она когда-то была. Она потеряла свои колонии, которые снабжали её дешевым сырьем.

XIII. Make up the plan of the text 'British Economy'. Retell the text according to your plan.

Text B

Most people work in order to earn their living. They produce goods and services. Goods are either produced on farms, like maize and milk, or in factories, like cars and paper. Services are provided by such things as schools, hospitals and shops. Some people provide goods; some provide services. Other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage, a man may buy a car, or he may buy some service which helps him to maintain his car. The work which people do is called their economic activity. Economic activities make up the economic system. The economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they want. An educated man has to study the economic system and economics which affect our lives. Economics is a science. It is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday lives and try to describe the facts of the economy in which we live. They try to explain how the system works and their methods should be objective and scientific. We need food, clothes and shelter. If we could get food, clothes and shelter without working, we probably would not work. But even when we have these essential things, we may want other things. If we had them, these other things (like radios, books and toys for children) might make life more enjoyable. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and wants. It is not just concerned with basic needs and wants like food, clothes and shelter.

I. Translate the words of the same root. Define speech parts.
economic - economics - economist - economy - economical - economically.

II. Fill in the blanks with one of the words given in exercise I. Translate the sentences.
1. Adam Smith and Keynes are two famous ... . 2. These people are studying the science of ... . 3. We sometimes call a person’s work his ... activity. 4. People should be very ... with the money they earn. 5. The economic system of a country is usually called the national ... .6. The people in that town live very ...

III. Study the different meanings of the word order.
Order: - way in which things are placed in relation to one another - порядок;
- condition in which everything is carefully arranged - режим;
- command - приказ;
- request to supply goods - заказ;
- purpose, intention:
in order to - для того, чтобы;
in order that - с целью;
- rank or class of society - орден.

Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the word order:
1. The order of baronets sounds archaic nowadays. 2. The device has been operating in the working order since its construction. 3. The words in the dictionary are always placed in the alphabetic order. 4. The boss said we should obey his orders. 5. Economists study our lives in order to understand the general economic system. 6. All the goods on this order have been packed.

IV. In each of these sentences a word is missing. Provide a word from the list below and translate the sentences.
1. Transport systems like railways, buses and planes provide the public with important ... . 2. They told him to look at the ... and then do the exercises. 3. He decided to ... the work in order to make some ... . 4. It was ... for him to go to the city as soon as possible. 5. They had enough ... to buy most of the ... they needed.

Prompts: commodities, money, essential, services, example, undertake.

V. Read Text B without a dictionary. Find the sentences with modal verbs. Translate them.

VI. Translate Text B.

VII. Say, whether these statements are true or false, and if they are false say why.
1. Most people produce only goods. 2. Services are provided by such things as schools , hospitals and shops. 3. Economic activities make up the economic system. 4. The economic system is the part of what people do and what they want. 5. Economists study only our individual lives. 6. They try to describe the facts and explain how the system works. 7. We need only food, shelter and clothes. 8. The science of economics is concerned only with our basic needs.

VIII. Suggest a few headlines to Text B. Choose the best one among the headlines suggested by your fellow students.

IX. Most people work in order to earn their living, and they produce goods and services. This fact can be shown as a diagram:

Most people produce
goods or services

The things which people produce are called their products. So the diagram can be drawn as:

goods services

Below there are 20 kinds of people. Ten of them produce goods; ten produce services. Make a diagram like this one and list the people under goods and services.

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