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SYNONYMY AND ANTONYMY. I. Answer the following questions





I. Answer the following questions.

1) How are synonyms traditionally defined?

What are the criteria of synonymy?

Which is the main criteria? Why?

2) Can synonyms be opposed to each other? Give examples.

3) What types of synonyms are identified in Academician Vinogradov's classification?

What aspects of this classification are open to criticism?

4) What other classification of synonyms do you know? Illustrate them with examples.

5) What is a synonymic set? What criteria are used in order to identify the dominant synonym? Give examples.

6) What is a characteristic pattern of English synonymic sets?

 

II.Are these synonyms? Why or why not?

(1) to cry – to weep – to sob;

(2) wife – spouse – consort;

(3) to bring – to take – to carry – to fetch;

(4) to glance – to peep – to stare – to gaze – to glare;

(5) to shout – to yell – to roar – to shriek;

(6) to see – to watch – to look.

 

III.Provide Anglo-Saxon Synonyms for these Latin words:

credible, avarice, immaculate, verbose, enchant, indefatigable, mundane.

 

IV.What is the semantic difference between the following synonyms? State their type.

(1) smell – perfume – odour – stink;

(2) to grin – to leer – to smile – to smirk;

(3) child – baby – babe – infant – tot – brat – urchin.

Can you identify the dominant synonyms in the above sets?

 

V.Give as many synonyms to the word "overweight" as you can. How can you classify them? Are they interchangeable?

 

VI.Can you define these terms?

euphemism, dysphemism, a taboo word, doublespeak, political correctness.

 

VII.Аmeriса is awash in euphemisms and doublespeak, argues William Lutz, author of The New Doublespeak (HarperCollins). Sее if уоu саn match the euphemisms on the left, which have been used in government and business, with the plain English versions on the right.

 

 

А. Stolen goods В. Junkyard С. Plastic D. Bag of ice cubes E. Bribe F. Death G. Liar H. Vinyl I. Failed J. Lower test scores  
1. Sufferer from fictitious disorder syndrome

2. Sub-optimal

3. Temporarily displaced inventory

4. Negative gain in test scores

5. Synthetic glass

6. Normal gratitude

7. Vegetarian leather

8. Thermal theraру kit

9. Substantive negative outcome

10. Reutilization marketing yard

 

 

VIII.Can you guess what the following euphemisms refer to? Identify the reason for using the euphemisms.

(1) The rebel fighters were neutralized.

(2) The Prime Minister was economical with the truth.

(3) Could you please regularise your bank account?

(4) This is not a non-risk policy.

(5) When is the happy event going to be?

(6) Would you like to wash your hands?

(7) His cousin is a guest of Her Majesty for six months.

 

IX.Which do you think is the more PC expression? Why?

(1) an unmarried mother – a single parent;

(2) children with special needs – educationally subnormal children;

(3) slum – substandard housing;

(4) fireman – firefighter;

(5) vertically-challenged – short;

(6) African-American – Black American.

 

X.Translate the following word-combinations into English. What difficulty can they present? Explain.

содержание романа, избирательная кампания, лежать на солнце, потерять сознание, накрыть на стол, молочные продукты, чистая совесть, вести дневник, содержимое кармана, приятная компания.

 

XI.What is the relationship between

deathly – deadly, considerate – considerable, contemptible – contemptuous?

Give three more examples of your own.

XII.Could you complete the statements?

1) Antonymy is ...

2) Antonyms are ...

3) There are different types of oppositeness: ...

 

XIII.Can you give the opposites of the following words? State the type of the antonyms:

pleasant, sane, patient, legal, friendly, convenient, to dress, to pronounce, regular, fast, personal, heavy, left, behind, female, reject, borrow, rent, enemy.

 

XIV.Could you recall at least five proverbs and sayings with antonyms? Fill in the gap with a suitable word.

Success always occurs in private, and ... in full view.

The hardness of the butter is proportional to the ... of the bread.

 

 






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