Студопедия — HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY IN SCHOOL
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HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY IN SCHOOL






Presentation of new words. Since every word has its form, meaning, and usage to present a word means to introduce to pupils its forms (phonetic, graphic, structural, and grammatical), and to explain its meaning, and usage.

The techniques of teaching pupils the pronunciation and spelling of a word are as follows; (1) pure or conscious imita­tion; (2) analogy; (3) transcription; (4) rules of reading.

Since a word consists of sounds if heard or spoken and letters if read or written the teacher shows the pupils how to pronounce, to read, and write it. However the approach may vary depending on the task set (the latter depends on the age of pupils, their progress in the language, the type of words, etc.). For example, if the teacher wants his pupils to learn the word orally first, he instructs them to recognize it when hearing and to articulate the word as an isolated element (a book) and in a sentence pattern or sentence patterns along­side with other words. (This is a book. Give me the book. Take the book. Put the book on the table, etc.)

As far as the form is concerned the pupils have but two difficulties to overcome: to learn how to pronounce the word both separately and in speech; and to recognize it in sentence patterns pronounced by the teacher, by his classmates, or by a speaker in case the tape recorder is used.

If the teacher wants his pupils to learn the word during the same lesson not only for hearing and speaking but for reading and writing as well, he shows them how to write and read it after they perform oral exercises and can recognize and pronounce the word. The teacher writes down the word on the blackboard (let it be spoon) and invites some pupils to read it (they already know all the letters and the rule of reading ). The pupils read the word and put it down in their note­books. In this case the pupils have two more difficulties to overcome: to learn how to write and how to read the word; the latter is connected with their ability to associate letters with sounds in a proper way.

Later when pupils have learned the English alphabet and acquired some skills in spelling and reading they may be told to copy the new words into their exercise-books and read and rite them independently; this work being done mainly as homework. The teacher then has his pupils perform various oral exorcises during the lesson, he makes every pupil pronounce In- new words in sentence patterns and use them in speech.

Since this is the most difficult part of work in vocabulary assimilations it can and must be done during the lesson and under the teacher's supervision.

There are two methods of conveying the meaning of words: direct method and translation. The direct method of presenting I1 ic words of a foreign language brings the learner into direct cbn-

I irl with them, the mother tongue does not come in between,

I1 establishes links between a foreign word and the thing or the concept directly. The direct method of conveying the mean-in,", of foreign words is usually used when the'words denote things, objects, their qualities, sometimes gestures and move­ments, which can be shown to and seen by pupils, for example: a book, a table, red, big, take, stand up, etc. The teacher should connect the English word he presents with the object, the notion il denotes directly, without the use of pupils' mother tongue.

There are various techniques for the use of the direct meth­od. It is possible to group them into (1) visual and (2) verbal. The first group involves the use of visual aids to convey the meaning of unfamiliar words. These may be: objects, or pic-11ires showing objects or situations; besides, the teacher may use movements and gestures. E. g., the teacher uses objects, lie lakes a pencil and looking at it says: a pencil. This is (i pencil. What is this? It is a pencil. Is it a pencil? Yes, it is. Is it a pen? (The word is familiar to the pupils.) No, it is not. Is il a pen or a pencil? It is a pencil. The pupils do not only grasp the meaning of the word pencil, but they observe the use of the word in familiar sentence patterns.

One more example. The teacher uses pictures for present-ing the words small and big. lie says: In this picture you can my' two balls. (The balls should differ only in size.) This is a:;iiu/ll ball, and that is a big ball. This ball is small, and that bull is big. Now, Sasha, come up to the picture and point to the small ball (the big ball).







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