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Scientific style.




The sphere of usage – scientific activity, education.

The main goal – giving data about a person, society, phenomena of a nature, argumentation of hypothesis, classification of knowledge.

The main features:

- clearness of concepts

- logical order

- generalization of concepts and phenomena

- objective analysis

- argumentation and persuasiveness of affirmations

- detailed conclusions

Publicistic style

The sphere of usage: public-political, social-manufacturing, cultural-educational activity, education.

The main purposes:

- with a help of informational-propagandistic methods to solve important, actual, social-political problems.

- active influence upon a reader

- propaganda of certain ideas, convictions, theories and active agitation

The main features:

- accessibility of language and formation (orientation for the public at large).

- combination of logical arguments and polemical summary

- presence of set of bright means of positive or negative author’s interpretation, which wears mostly tendentious character

- wide usage of artistic devices (epithets, similes, metaphors, hyberboles).

4.Speak on basic sound effects and their stylistic value: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance.

The stylistic approach to the utterance is not confined to its structure and sense. There is another thing to be taken into account which, in a certain type of communication plays an important role. This is the way a word, a phrase or a sentence sounds. The sound of most words taken separately will have little or no aesthetic value. A word may acquire a desired phonetic effect only in combination with other words. The way a separate word sounds may produce a certain euphonic effect, but this is a matter of individual perception and feeling and therefore subjective. However there exist psychological works on the theory of sound symbolism. They checked the associations, which the tested people have with the definite sounds. Statistics shows that their answers coincide very often.

Verier St Woolman, one of the founders of the theory of sound symbolism claimed that a certain sound when pronounced clearly and strong has special meaning and feeling. For example the sound [d], when repeated often may produce an effect of something evil, negative and wicked.

The sound of a word, or more exactly the way words sound in combination, often contributes something to the general effect of the message, particularly when the sound effect has been deliberately worked out. This can easily be recognized when analyzing alliterative word combinations or the rhymes in certain stanzas or from more elaborate analysis of sound arrangement.

The aesthetiс effect of the text is composed not only with the help of sounds and prosody, but with the help of sounds and prosody together with the meaning. The sound side of the belles-letters work makes a whole with rhythm and meaning and can’t influence the reader separately.

To influence aesthetically the sound part of the text should somehow be highlightened. An author can increase an emotional and aesthetic effect of his work through choosing the words, their arrangement and repetitions. Let’s see what phonetic SDs can secure this function.







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