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Issues in computing

Because faults can develop in computer systems, it is important to keep copies of valuable data using a backup system. This is especially important in a network where many users are storing vast amounts of data. Networks also require security systems to control access. Login names and passwords are often used, but these may be combined with the use of plastic swipe cards containing a user identification number. Some computer systems use recognition systems that scan and identify characteristics of the user such as their fingerprints, facial features, voice, or eyes.

Computer crimes include:

1. hacking – unauthorized access to computer systems and tampering with other users’ data.

2. pirating, i.e. illegally copying and selling programs.

3. intentionally attempting to spread viruses.

Viruses are programs that have been written to make a computer behave in an unexpected and undesired way. Although they are often relatively harmless, they sometimes cause a lot of damage. They are usually designed to remain hidden and dormant until a particular time, or until the user performs a particular action, such as pressing a particular combination of keys. They can replicate themselves, and often attach themselves to other programs. It is common for a user to have a virus program on their disk without being aware of it.

Viruses can be found and removed by anti-virus programs, which scan disks and files looking for programming code that is known to belong to particular virus programs. When a piece of virus code is found, the virus can be identified, and an appropriate program run to delete the virus code from the disk or file. Plane text email messages cannot contain a virus, but viruses can be carried in email attachments, i.e. files attached to email messages. Some viruses are much more common than others and are often unknowingly downloaded from a network system such as the Internet. Care should be taken to check for viruses when using removable disks or when transferring files.


3 Answer the following questions:

1.Isit important to keep copies of valuable data using a backup system? Why?

2. Do networks require security systems to control access?

3. What computer crimes do you know?

4. What are viruses written for?

5.What is the principle of operation ofanti-virus programs?

6. Can plane text email message contain a virus?



Match each word from column A (1-37) with its partner from column B (a-kk) to make a computing term definition from Basic English for Computing Units 24-26


1 physically disabled person a)to do something with robots
2 implant   b) an electron tube containing a near-vacuum that allows the free passage of electric current
3 PIN (Personal Identification Number)   c) grow or cause to grow and become more mature, advanced, or elaborate
4 online d) create or design (something that has not existed before)
5 electronic wallet     e) a card perforated according to a code, for controlling the operation of a machine, used in voting machines and formerly in programming and entering data into computers
6 readout   f) a unit of power equal to one million watts, especially as a measure of the output of a power station
7 robotics g) a well-known make of a very powerful supercomputer
8 smart clothes   h) someone having a physical or mental condition that limits his(her) movements, senses, or activities
9 smart card reader i) the practice of breaking into compputer systems and changing data without permission
10 vıdeophone j) a smartcard device worn by the user
11 wristwatch   k) a number allocated to an individual and used to validate electronic transactions
12 vacuum tube   l) bring (something, especially a product, measure, or concept) into use or operation for the first time
13 transistor   m) a long narrow strip having holes punched in it, used in older computer systems for conveying data or instructions
14 integrated circuit (IC)   n) a telephone system that displays a video picture of the caller
15 develop   o) a system for controlling the humidity, ventilation, and temperature in a building or vehicle, typically to maintain a cool atmosphere in warm conditions
16 introduce     p) a small electronic part in something such as a television or radio, which controls the flow of electricity
17 invent q) A device used for reading smart cards
18 punched card   r) an electronic circuit formed on a small piece of semiconducting material, performing the same function as a larger circuit made from discrete components
19 paper tape     s) controlled by or connected to a system and able to be used or performed using the Internet or other computer network
20 megawatt   t) a set of programs used to detect, identify, and remove viruses from a system
21 distributed computing   u) something that is dormant, that is not active, growing, or being used at the present time but is capable of becoming active later on
22 air-conditioning   v) a program written deliberately to damage data or cause a computer to behave in an unusual way
23 growth w) Illegally copying software programs
24 lift off   x) the action of stopping something from happening or arising
25 active badge y) make something active or operative
26 bulletin board   z) A plastic card with a magnetic strip running across it containing confidential data
27 hacking   aa) a type of a personal computer manufactured by Apple Computer Incorporated
28 Cray bb) abbreviation for the computer company called International Business Machines Corporation
29 IBM cc) a display showing a measurement
30 Apple Macintosh   dd) a kind of electronic noticeboard system that enables users to display messages for other users to read
31 pirating ee) rise from the ground or a launch pad, esp. vertically
32 swipe card ff) clothes that contain embeded computing devices
33 activate gg) the process of increasing in size
34 dormant hh) A network system that uses different servers throughout the network rather than a single server at the center of the network
35 prevention ii) a watch with a strap which you wear round your wrist
36 virus jj) a smartcard used for storing money downloaded from a computer bank account
37 anti-virus kk) insert or fix (tissue or an artificial object) in a person's body, especially by surgery



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