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Predicative constructions with the infinitive
§ 113.The infinitive is used in predicative constructions of three types: the objective with the infinitive construction, and the so-called for-to-infinitive construction*. Traditionally they are called the complex subject, the complex object, and the for-to-infinitive complex.
* It is possible, however, to distinguish one more infinitive construction generally called the subjective infinitive construction or the nominative infinitive construction. (See § 123 on the Subjective predicative construction).
In all these constructions the infinitive denotes an action ascribed to the person or non-person, though grammatically this relationship is not expressed in form: the doer of the action may be represented by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case (I saw himcross the street, it is for him to decide this) and the verbal element which is not in a finite form. Still, due to their semantics and because of the attached position the nominal and the verbal elements are understood as forming a complex with subject-predicate relationship.
The for-to-infinitive construction
§ 114. In the for-to-infinitive construction the infinitive (usually an infinitive phrase) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case introduced by the preposition for. The construction is used where the doer of the action (or the bearer of the state), expressed by the infinitive, is different from that of the finite verb (the predicate):
The for-to-infinitive construction has the same functions as a single infinitive, though with some restrictions.
1. Subject. The for-to-infinitive construction in the function of the subject usually occurs in sentences with the introductory it, though it is occasionally placed at the head of the sentence:
It was difficult for him to do anything else.
For me to hear him was disturbing.
2. Predicative. In this function the construction is mostly used with the link verb to be:
The best thing is for you to do it now.
3. Object. The construction functions as object of both verbs and adjectives:
a) She watched for the door to open.
I don’t think I should care for it to be known.
b) His family were anxious for him to do something.
I’m so glad for you to have come at last.
There was no need for him to be economical.
5. Adverbial modifier of purpose and consequence:
She paused for him to continue.
The wall was too high for anything to be visible.
He had said enough for me to get alarmed.
In all its uses this construction is generally rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause.
The objective with the infinitive construction
In the objective with the infinitive construction the infinitive (usually an infinitive phrase) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case (hence the name of the construction). The whole construction forms a complex object of some verbs. It is rendered in Russian by an object clause.
The objective with the infinitive construction is used in the following cases:
1. After verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice and some others). In this case the only possible form of the infinitive is the non-perfect common aspect active voice form, used without the particle to:
No one has ever heard her cry.
I paused a moment and watched the tram-car stop.
The verb to listen to, though not a verb of sense perception, is used in the same way, with a bare infinitive:
He was listening attentively to the chairman speak.
If the verb to see or to notice is used with the meaning to realize, or the verb to hear with the meaning to learn, the objective with the infinitive construction cannot be used. Here only subordinate object clause is possible:
2. After verbs of mental activity (to think, to believe, to consider, to expect, to understand, to suppose, to find and some others). Here the infinitive is used in any form, though the non-perfect forms are the most frequent (always with the particle to).
I know him to be an honest man.
She believed him to have left for San Francisco.
I believed her to be knitting in the next room.
I should expect my devoted friend to be devoted to me.
3. After verbs of emotion (to like, to love, to hate, to dislike and some others). Here non-perfect, common aspect forms of the “to”- infinitive are the most usual.
I always liked him to sing.
She hated her son to be separated from her.
I’d love you to come with me too.
I hated him to have been sent away.
4. After verbs of wish and intention (to want, to wish, to desire, to intend, to mean and some others). After these verbs only non-perfect common aspect forms of the infinitive with the particle toare used:
He only wished you to be near him.
I don’t want him to be punished.
5. After verbs of declaring (to declare, to pronounce):
I declare you to be out of your mind.
He reported the boat to have been seen not far away.
6. After verbs of inducement (to have, to make, to get, to order, to tell, to ask, etc.) of which the first two take a bare infinitive. In the construction some of them acquire a different meaning: make - заставить, get - добиться, have - заставить (сказать, чтобы ...)
I can’t get him to do it properly.
She made me obey her.
7. The objective with the infinitive construction also occurs after certain verbs requiring a prepositional object,for example to count (up)on, to rely (up) on, to look for, to listen to, to wait for:
I rely on you to come in time.
Can’t I count upon you to help me?