Студопедия Главная Случайная страница Обратная связь

Разделы: Автомобили Астрономия Биология География Дом и сад Другие языки Другое Информатика История Культура Литература Логика Математика Медицина Металлургия Механика Образование Охрана труда Педагогика Политика Право Психология Религия Риторика Социология Спорт Строительство Технология Туризм Физика Философия Финансы Химия Черчение Экология Экономика Электроника

CRIMINAL LAW

 

I. Match the following English words and expressions with their Russian equivalents:

 

1. codification of law a. бездействие
2. double jeopardy b. добровольное (намеренное) действие
3. voluntary act c. преступное намерение
4. omission d. кодификация права
5. sleepwalking e. определение, предусмотренное законом
6. mental disorders f. лунатизм
7. criminal intent g. запрет повторного преследования по одному и тому же делу
8. statutory definition h. психические заболевания

 

II. Study the vocabulary or consult the dictionary to translate some words:

 

affect  
aggravated assault нападение при отягчающих обстоятельствах
agreement  
apprehension задержание
arson поджог
attempt  
body (основная) часть
burglary незаконное проникновение в помещение, кража со взломом
charging обвинение
circumstance  
commit совершать (преступление)
comprehensive всесторонний
concern проблема, вопрос
condition  
conjunction связь
considerable значительный
consistently согласованно
conspiracy преступный сговор, умысел
contain  
convicted осужденный
decade  
decided решенный
define  
derive происходить
determine определить
effort  
embody воплощать, заключать
emerge появляться
enact вводить (в действие)
enforcement принудительное применение (закона)
essentially по существу
everywhere  
exist  
given state of mind данное психическое состояние
in some respects в некоторых отношениях
intent намерение
involuntary непреднамеренный
justifiable позволительный, заслуживающий оправдания
limitation  
majority  
modern  
movement  
murder  
necessitate вынуждать
offence правонарушение
offender правонарушитель, преступник
origin источник, происхождение
otherwise в противном случае
preparation  
presuppose предполагать
prohibit  
protection  
provide  
punishment наказание
rape изнасилование
recognize признавать
regard считать
rehabilitation оправдание, восстановление в правах
reject  
repeal отменять
research  
robbery ограбление (с применением насилия)
self-defense самооборона
sentencing вынесение приговора
specify точно определять, устанавливать
statute закон, статут
suspected подозреваемый
theft воровство
treason измена
unjust несправедливый
vary различаться
with respect to что касается

 

III. Match each word on the left with the correct definition on the right:

 

1. an arsonist a. sets fire to property illegally
2. a shoplifter b. is anyone who breaks the law
3. an offender c. breaks into houses or other buildings to steal
4. a vandal d. steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer
5. a burglar e. kills someone
6. a murderer f. causes damage to property
7. a kidnapper g. steals things from people's pockets in crowded places
8. a pickpocket h. gets secret information from another country
9. an accomplice i. buys and sells drugs illegally
10. a drug dealer j. takes away people by force and demands money for their return
11. a spy k. helps a criminal in a criminal act
12. a terrorist l. uses violence for political reasons

 

 

1. an assassin a. causes damage or disturbance in public places
2. a hooligan b. hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey
3. a stowaway c. takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change course
4. a thief d. murders for political reasons or a reward
5. a hijacker e. is someone who steals
6. a forger f. makes false money or signatures
7. a robber g. is a member of a criminal group
8. a smuggler h. steals money etc. by force from people or places
9. a traitor i. marries illegally, being married already
10. a gangster j. is a soldier who runs away from the army
11. a deserter k. brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax
12. a bigamist l. betrays his or her country to another state

 

VI. Read and translate the text:

 

Criminal Law is the body of law that defines criminal offences, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons, and fixes punishment for convicted offenders.

The offences that involve criminal law, a part of public law, are those against the state. Criminal law presupposes a rule of law in defining acts as criminal. In other words, when an act seems to be immoral or unjust, it is not a crime unless the law says it is one. Under the common law, custom and precedent define criminal action; in countries where a legal code exists, statute defines it. Criminal law usually prohibits the trial of a person a second time for the same offence (double jeopardy) and contains statutes of limitations — that is, limits for the period during which charges may be made.

A crime is usually defined as a voluntary act or omission, in conjunction with a given state of mind. Acts committed during fits of epilepsy or while sleepwalking are involuntary and are not qualified as crimes. Mental disorders are also recognized as limiting responsibility for acts otherwise regarded as criminal. Other factors that determine criminal intent are self-defence, defence of other persons, protection of property, and enforcement of the law. The law of most countries recognizes that the use of force, while not justifiable, maybe excused if the defendant believed that the use of force was necessitated by special circumstances.

Criminal acts include arson, rape, treason, aggravated assault, theft, burglary, robbery, and murder. Other concerns of criminal law are cons­piracy, a term that defines agreement between two or more individuals to commit a crime, and attempt. The definition of attempt varies from one legal system to another, but essentially it is preparation for criminal action.

Important differences exist between the criminal law of most English-speaking countries and that of other countries. The criminal law of England and the United States derives from the traditional English common law of crimes and has its origins in the judicial decisions embodied in reports of decided cases. England has consistently rejected all efforts toward comprehensive legislative codification of its criminal law; even now there is no statutory definition of murder in English law. Some Commonwealth countries, notably India, have enacted criminal codes that are based on the English common law of crimes.

The criminal law of the United States, derived from the English common law, has been adapted in some respects to American conditions. In the majority of the U.S. states the common law of crimes has been repealed by legislation. The effect of such statutes is that no person may be tried for any offence that is not specified in the statutory law of the state. But even in these states the common-law principles still exist, and the criminal statutes are often simply codifications of the common law.

In Europe the criminal law of modern times has emerged from various codifications. The most important were the two Napoleonic codes of 1808 and 1810. The German codes of 1871 (penal code) and 1877 (procedure) provided the models for other European countries.

In the last few decades the movement for codification and law reform has made considerable progress everywhere.

Modern criminal law has been affected by the social sciences, especially with respect to sentencing, legal research, legislation, and rehabilitation.

 

V. Give the definitions for the following legal terms:

 

1. Criminal law is...

2. Crime is...

3. Conspiracy is ...

4. Attempt is...

 

VI. Answer the questions:

 

1. What are the two important elements of a crime which the prosecution must prove?

2. What is «double jeopardy»?

3. What differences exist between the criminal law of most English-speaking countries and that of other countries?

4. What criminal codes provided the model for many European countries?

5. What has modern criminal law been affected by?

 


Поможем в написании учебной работы
Поможем с курсовой, контрольной, дипломной, рефератом, отчетом по практике, научно-исследовательской и любой другой работой


<== предыдущая лекция | следующая лекция ==>
REVISION TRANSLATION | The guidelines also restrict the ability of prosecutors to plea bargain.

Дата добавления: 2015-09-04; просмотров: 577. Нарушение авторских прав; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

Studopedia.info - Студопедия - 2014-2022 год . (0.032 сек.) русская версия | украинская версия
Поможем в написании
> Курсовые, контрольные, дипломные и другие работы со скидкой до 25%
3 569 лучших специалисов, готовы оказать помощь 24/7