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· Examples of ethical dilemmas

One of the primary functions of journalism ethics is to aid journalists in dealing with many ethical dilemmas they may encounter. From highly sensitive issues of national security to everyday questions such as accepting a dinner from a source, putting a bumper sticker on one's car, publishing a personal opinion blog, a journalist must make decisions taking into account things such as the public's right to know, potential threats, reprisals and intimidations of all kinds, personal integrity, conflicts between editors, reporters and publishers or management, and many other such conundra. The following are illustrations of some of those.

· The Pentagon Papers dealt with extremely difficult ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Despite government intervention, The Washington Post, joined by The New York Times, felt the public interest was more compelling and both published reports. (The cases went to the Supreme Court where they were merged and are known as New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713.[20]

· The Washington Post also once published a story about a listening device that the United States had installed over an undersea Soviet cable during the height of the cold war. The device allowed the United States to learn where Soviet submarines were positioned. In that case, Post Executive Editor Ben Bradlee chose not to run the story on national security grounds. However, the Soviets subsequently discovered the device and, according to Bradlee, "It was no longer a matter of national security. It was a matter of national embarrassment." However, the U.S. government still wanted The Washington Post not to run the story on the basis of national security, yet, according to Bradlee, "We ran the story. And you know what, the sun rose the next day."[21]

· The Center for International Media Ethics, an international non-profit organisation "offers platform for media professionals to follow current ethical dilemmas of the press" through its blog. Besides highlighting the ethical concerns of recent stories, journalists are encouraged to express their own opinion. The organisation "urges journalists to make their own judgments and identify their own strategies."[22]

· The Ethics AdviceLine for Journalists, a joint venture, public service project of Chicago Headline Club Chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists and Loyola University Chicago Center for Ethics and Social Justice, provides some examples of typical ethical dilemmas reported to their ethical dilemma hotline and are typical of the kinds of questions faced by many professional journalists.

A partial listing of questions received by The Ethics AdviceLine:[23]

· Is it ethical to make an appointment to interview an arsonist sought by police, without informing police in advance of the interview?

· Is lack of proper attribution plagiarism?

· Should a reporter write a story about a local priest who confessed to a sex crime if it will cost the newspaper readers and advertisers who are sympathetic to the priest?

· Is it ethical for a reporter to write a news piece on the same topic on which he or she has written an opinion piece in the same paper?

· Under what circumstances do you identify a person who was arrested as a relative of a public figure, such as a local sports star?

· Freelance journalists and photographers accept cash to write about, or take photos of, events with the promise of attempting to get their work on the AP or other news outlets, from which they also will be paid. Is that ethical?

· Can a journalist reveal a source of information after guaranteeing confidentiality if the source proves to be unreliable?

· Criticisms

A study on journalistic professionalism argued that it is a combination of two factors, secondary socialization of journalists in the workplace and the fetishization of journalistic norms and standards.[24] In this way, undesirable traits in new journalists can be weeded out, and remaining journalists are free to cynically criticize journalistic professional norms as long as they keep working and following them. This criticism is adapted from sociological work on journalism and from philosopher Slavoj Žižek's concept of ideology.[25]

· See also

  Journalism portal

· Advocacy journalism

· Citizen journalism

· Ethical Journalism Initiative

· History of American Newspapers

· History of Journalism

· International Federation of Journalists

· Journalism

· Objectivity (journalism)

· Ombudsman

· Order of the Occult Hand

· Organisation of News Ombudsmen

· Parachute journalism

· Public Editor

· Reporters Without Borders

· Yellow journalism

· Code of ethics in media

· Code of ethics in media#Society of Professional Journalists: Code of Ethics

· International Council for Press and Broadcasting

· International Council for Press and Broadcasting#Media Ethics Code

· References

3. ^ Canons of Journalism - as adopted by ASNE originally in 1923

4. ^ IFJ (International Federation of Journalists) - Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists (DOC version)

5. ^ ASNE (American Society of Newspapers Editors) - Statement of Principles

6. ^ APME (Associated Press Managing Editors) - Statement of Ethical Principles

7. ^ SPJ (Society of Professional Journalists) - Code of Ethics

8. ^ Internews Europe: Media Awards - Good Journalism Retrieved on June-09-2009

9. ^ Truth and the Media PDF (50.1 KB) Dean, Catherine. Strathmore University Ethics Conference, 2006 (see page 11, Harm limitation principle) Retrieved on June-09-2009

10. ^ Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe - Resolution 1003 (1993) on the ethics of journalism (see clause 33)

11. ^ UK - Press Complaints Commission - Codes of Practice (see item 12, "Discrimination")

12. ^ (Italian) Italy - FNSI's La Carta dei Doveri (The Chart of Duties) (section "Principi")

13. ^ (Spanish) Spain - FAPE's Código Deontológico (Deontological Code) (see Principios Generales, item 7, "a")

14. ^ (Portuguese) Brazil - FENAJ's Code of Ethics PDF (20.8 KB) (see Article 6, item XIV)

15. ^ PACE Resolution 1003 (1993) on the Ethics of Journalism (see clause 22)

16. ^ About RTNDA

17. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070613235349/http://www.rtnda.org/ethics/CodeofEthics.pdf

18. ^ [1]

19. ^ Redirecting

20. ^ "In Praise of Insensitive Reporters" by Jack Schafer, Slate, April 17, 2007

21. ^ http://www.mendeley.com/research/unnamed-sources-utilitarian-exploration-justification-guidelines-limited/

22. ^ "New York Times Co. v. United States". Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2008-12-26.

23. ^ [2]

24. ^ "Center for International Media Ethics".

25. ^ "Typical Questions Asked to Ethics AdviceLine". Ethics AdviceLine for Journalists. Retrieved 2008-12-26.

26. ^ Hearns-Branaman, Jesse Owen, 2013, 'Journalistic professionalism as indirect control and fetishistic disavowal,' Journalism [3]

27. ^ Žižek, Slavoj, 1989, The Sublime Object of Ideology (London, Verso)

· Further reading

· Global Journalism Ethics. Ward, Stephen J.A. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.

· Media Ethics Beyond Borders: A Global Perspective. Ward, Stephen J.A. and Herman Wasserman, eds. New York: Routledge, 2010.

· The Invention of Journalism Ethics: The Path to Objectivity and Beyond. Ward, Stephen J.A. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.

· Good News, Bad News - Journalism Ethics and the Public Interest (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries) by Jeremy Iggers (New York, Westview Press, 1998)

· Journalism Ethics—A Reference Handbook (Contemporary Ethical Issues) edited by Elliot D. Cohen and Deni Elliott (Abc-Clio, 1998)

· Media Ethics and Accountabilityprogress.

· Crisis of Conscience - Perspectives on Journalism Ethics. Hausman, Carl. New York, Harper Collins, 1992.

· Ethics & Journalism, Sanders, Karen. London, Sage Publications, 2003.

· To Tell You the TRUTH—The Ethical Journalism Initiative by Aidan White (IFJ, 2008)

· The Ethical Values of Journalists. Field Research among Media Professionals in Catalonia. Alsius, Salvador, ed. (2010). Generalitat de Catalunya. ISBN 978-84-393-8346-8

· Ethics and Media Culture: Practices and Representations, David Berry, Focal Press, 2000.

· Journalism, Ethics and Society, David Berry, Ashgate Publications, 2008.

· Journalism Ethics and Regulation (3rd edtn) Frost, Chris London: Pearson Education 2011.

· External links

  Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: How To Run A Newspaper

· Center for Journalism Ethics

· Center for International Media Ethics CIME

· Ethical Journalism Initiative A global campaign of the International Federation of Journalists

· Ethics code of the Society of Professional Journalists

· Journalistic Standards and Practices of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

· BBC Editorial Guidelines: code of ethics for content producers

· Databank for European Codes of Journalism Ethics

· Canadian Association of Journalists Ethics Committee

· The Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association "Canon of Journalism"

· Medialaw.com's review "Code of Ethics of Various Journalists' Unions in Asia"

· Journalism Ethics Cases Online

A journalism school is a school or department, usually part of an established university, where journalists are trained. An increasingly used term for a journalism department, school or college is 'J-School'. Many of the most famous and respected journalists of the past and present had no formal training in journalism, but learned their craft on the job, often starting out as copy boys/copy girls. Today, in many parts of the world it is usual for journalists to first complete university-level training which incorporates both technical skills such as research skills, interviewing technique and shorthand and academic studies in media theory, cultural studies and ethics.

Historically, in the United Kingdom entrants used first to complete a non media-studies related degree course, giving maximum educational breadth, prior to taking a specialist postgraduate pre-entry course. However, this has changed over the last ten years with journalism training and education moving to higher educational institutions. There are now over 60 universities in the UK offering BA honours degrees in journalism. Postgraduate courses are more well-established, some of which are either recognised by the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) or the National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ).

· Contents

· 1 History

· 2 Top journalism schools

· 2.1 Africa

· 2.2 Australia and New Zealand

· 2.3 Europe

· 2.4 North America

· 2.5 South America

· 2.5.1 Journalism schools in Colombia

· 2.5.2 Journalism schools in Chile

· 3 Debate about the role of journalism schools

· 4 List of journalism schools and programs

· 5 See also

· 6 References

· 7 External links

· History

The first program for journalism education was introduced by former Confederate General, Robert E. Lee,[1] during his presidency at Washington and Lee University, in Lexington, Virginia, in the 1860s.[2] Both the Missouri School of Journalism at the University of Missouri founded by Walter Williams in 1908[3] and the Ecole Superieure de Journalisme in Paris, France founded in 1899[4] claim to be the worlds first journalism school. Although Paris's school opened its doors in 1899 after three years of internal debates, the question was discussed in Missouri since 1895. Since then the journalism school has become standard at most major universities.[citation needed]

· Top journalism schools

There have been various attempts to rank journalism schools, and the question of which are the "best" or "top" journalism schools is frequently raised on the internet by students. Many institutions claim to be leading schools of journalism, and there is inevitably debate about which are the most appropriate criteria with which to evaluate and judge journalism schools. Awards are obvious indicators of a quality J-school, as are the quality of school graduates.

· Africa

In 2007 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) named what it terms the Potential Centres of Excellence in Journalism Training in Africa. After thorough research there were twelve journalism and media training institutions named on the list and they were not placed in any order.

These twelve UNESCO Potential Centres of Excellence in Journalism Training in Africa are the Department of Journalism at the Tshwane University of Technology in Pretoria in South Africa (TUT), Mass Communication Department at Makerere University in Uganda, School of Journalism and Media Studies at Rhodes University in Grahamstown in South Africa, Department of Mass Communication at the University of Lagos in Nigeria, School of Communication, Legal and Secretarial Studies at the Namibia Polytechnic, Mozambican School of Journalism in Mozambique, Centre d'études des sciences et techniques de l'information in Senegal, The School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Nairobi in Kenya, Department of Journalism at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa, Institut Supérieur de l'Information et de la Communication in Morocco, School of Communication Studies at Walter Sisulu University in South Africa and Ecole Supérieure de Sciences et Techniques de l'Information et de la Communication in Cameroon.

UNESC0's list is not exhaustive, and new schools have been founded since the study was conducted.

With the rise of Internet and social media in the past five years there has been increasing demand for journalism schools offering specialized training in the kinds of modern challenges journalists face in the rapidly changing online-media landscape. E-jicom Graduate School of Journalism and Communication in Dakar, Senegal is one such institution, offering specialized training combining stringent media ethics with the modern technological demands of online media.

· Australia and New Zealand

In Australia, there is no official ranking of journalism schools or courses but Charles Sturt University, RMIT University and University of Technology, Sydney are widely considered to offer the best journalism degree programmes in the country. Entrance to these programmes is highly competitive and their graduates have the highest rate of employment in the industry. Nevertheless, a ranking of all journalism schools has been assembled based on graduating students' assessments of the quality of their courses. The ranking, based on student satisfaction ratings over four years, are (in order), Jschool Journalism College in Brisbane, University of the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, University of Western Sydney, Murdoch University in Western Australia and the University of Technology, Sydney. Figures for the most recent year for which data is available (2008) indicate 100 percent satisfaction among students at Bond University and Jschool (both in Queensland), and 85-86 percent satisfaction among students at the Universities of Canberra, Newcastle and the Sunshine Coast.[5][self-published source?]. The New Zealand Training Organisation has published a list of New Zealand's journalism schools recognised by industry.[6]

New Zealand Institute of Business Studies has been teaching Freelance Journalism & Non-Fiction Writing for more than 20 years. Training is less 'academic-focused' and more 'income-earning' focused. Graduates are given a fortnightly list of journalism job vacancies.[7]

· Europe

The Centre de Formation des Journalistes (CFJ[8]) was founded in 1946 by two Resistance leaders, although both Ecole Superieure de Journalisme of Paris and Lille had been founded earlier (1899 and 1924 respectively). Located on the rue du Louvre in Paris, many of the leading journalists in France today graduated from this school and come back to help train today's students. Other main French journalisme schools are École supérieure de journalisme de Lille, created in 1924, Ecole de journalisme de Sciences Po, CELSA, École supérieure de journalisme de Paris and Institut Pratique du Journalisme, all in Paris.

During the Third Reich, the Nazis established the Reichspresseschule (Imperial School of Press), in which journalists were taught to write what the National Socialist German Workers' Party wanted the German public to think. After the war, the first Journalism school in Germany was founded in 1949 as Werner Friedmann Institute. 1961 the schools name was changed into Deutsche Journalistenschule (German school of journalism). In 1979, a new journalism school was created in Hamburg, later renamed after the founder of Stern magazine, Henri Nannen.

Britain's newest and most innovative university based education in journalism is offered at the University of Kent's Centre for Journalism.[9] Established under the leadership of Professor Tim Luckhurst, a former editor of the Scotsman and former BBC Editor[10] The Centre runs both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees that are accredited by the National Council for the Training of Journalists.[11] Teaching blends professional training in multimedia journalism and intense instruction in traditional academic disciplines including history, politics and law. The Centre is equipped with three state-of-the-art multimedia newsrooms including radio and television studios. It has its own dedicated multimedia website[12] Admission is competitive. Every candidate must attend for interview and test and must demonstrate sincere commitment to journalism. Very high academic standards are maintained and one to one teaching is offered to all students. The Centre offers guaranteed work placements with the KM Group.[13] It awards the annual Sky Bob Friend Memorial Scholarship, named after the legendary Sky News presenter, Bob Friend, and sponsored by Sky News[14] Mark Thompson, Director General of the BBC delivered the 2010 Bob Friend Memorial Lecture[15] Jon Snow, Presenter of Channel 4 News, delivered the lecture in 2011[16]

One of Europe's longest established centres of journalism education is the department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Central Lancashire (also known as UCLan), which launched its first print journalism course in 1962 at the then Harris College, which later became part of the University of Central Lancashire.[17] The Times said, in 2008, that "It is acknowledged as one of the leading centres for the teaching of journalism in Britain".[18] In 2010, the University won the Broadcast Journalism Training Council's award for general excellence.[19]

Another well-established course is the highly-regarded School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University which was founded in 1970 by Sir Tom Hopkinson. The course was also the UK's top-rated course by the National Council for the Training of Journalists for the academic year 2007/8.[20]

The International Media Center (Slovenia-Austria-Serbia), offers in cooperation with South East Europe Media Organisation (SEEMO) and South East and Central Europe PR Organisation (SECEPRO) several courses, including master programme.

The School of Journalism at the University of Lincoln was described by John Pilger as '...one of the most enlightened in the world'.[21] The internationally acclaimed investigative journalist formally opened the School in 2004.[22] It provides undergraduate, MA and PhD programmes covering the theory and practice of journalism. Research in the School focuses on media ethics, international human rights, peace journalism, the coverage of US/UK warfare, the diasporic media and literary journalism, with 70% of the research output assessed in 2008 as 'internationally excellent' or 'world leading'.[23] Teaching emphasizes the growing focus on convergence; production workshops are delivered in seven newsrooms with integral broadcast studios. Staff in the school have published leading textbooks in the field of print,[24] broadcast journalism and comparative media history.[25] Courses are accredited by the BJTC and PTC[disambiguation needed][26] and the School is 'Recognised for Excellence’ by the European Journalism Training Association.[27]

City University London's Journalism Department is one of the best known and most well-respected in the UK. The Independent said City's postgraduate courses had "rightly accrued legendary status within the media"[28] and ex-Guardian Editor Peter Preston wrote: "What's the passport to journalism? The dreaming spires of... City University".[29] City's faculty includes Professor George Brock and Professor Roy Greenslade, and alumni include Sophie Raworth of the BBC, Sky's Dermot Murnaghan and Channel 4 News Economics Editor Faisal Islam.

The Press Association offer a fast-track 17-week course in Multimedia and print journalism (NCTJ), which is widely regarded as the best of its kind in the UK and one of the best courses overall. The short length and intensity of the course makes entry on to the course extremely competitive and usually only those with exceptional promise will be accepted. It was previously owned by Trinity Mirror and many national newspapers send trainees to take part in at least some PA-training within a graduate scheme.

The National Student Survey results for both 2009 and 2010 place University of Sheffield No. 1 in the UK for overall satisfaction with Journalism. Journalism Studies at Sheffield also ranked 1st under the Times Good University Guide 2009 subject league table for Communications and Media Studies. Liverpool John Moores and Bournemouth have well-respected journalism courses. Kingston University, Bournemouth and Birmingham City have developed fully converged journalism courses without reference to separate production disciplines such as radio, newspaper or magazine journalism. Issues from a European perspective in evaluating journalism schools were discussed by the president of the European Journalism Training Association in an interview with Marianne Peters of the European Journalism Training Association (EJTA).[30]

The London School of Journalism (LSJ)[31] is an independent and highly acclaimed institution with well-recognised Postgraduate programs in Journalism and writing. It was founded in 1920 by Sir Max Pemberton. Kingston University also has a well-respected department of journalism. Founded in 2003 it has courses accredited by the NCTJ and PTC. The campus newspaper and magazine produced by its journalism students have won best student publication in the national Guardian Student Media Awards.

In Denmark, the University of Southern Denmark established a journalism study programme in 1998 at the then founded Centre for Journalism, as did Roskilde University, following the political decision to break the Danish School of Journalism’s monopoly on educating journalists in Denmark. The purpose was and is to increase the diversity of teaching and research within the field of journalism. Since its establishment, the Centre for Journalism has launched several innovative features within the field, including the by now renowned award for journalists, "The Journalistic Fellowship", and the introduction of a journalist’s oath similar to the Hippocratic oath. Also, in terms of scientific publications it is the most productive journalism research department in Denmark (status: 2005).[32]

In Russia, the MSU Faculty of Journalism is the leading journalism school and the world’s largest school of journalism.[33] The majority of textbooks on journalism in Russian were written by MSU scientists.

In Minsk (Belarus), the Institute of Journalism of BSU is one of the leading scientific and educational centers in the sphere of Mass Media in the territory of the former soviet countries. It possesses a highly respected scientific and pedagogical standard and prepares professionals in mass media for work in Belarus and abroad.

The Hungarian, Bálint György Academy of Journalism (previously known as Hungarian School of Journalism) runs under the aegis of the National Association of Hungarian Journalists (MÚOSZ). Before 1989, the Hungarian School of Journalism served as a highly selective post-graduate program for well-trained journalists in Hungary. Since 2003, the Bálint György Academy of Journalism belongs to the accredited professional education system.

The top Journalism School in Spain according to El Mundo newspaper is the University of Navarra. It is the oldest School of Journalism in Spain and among the Top 10 world universities of medium size according to the QS ranking. Many reputed and well-known journalists have studied at Universidad Complutense de Madrid, one of the Madrid's most prestigious university. Princess Letizia of Spain studied journalism at this University, which is the main public university in the country. Other universities include Pompeu Fabra University, Autonomous University of Barcelona and Pontifical University of Salamanca.

· North America

A listing (unranked) of Canadian journalism schools has been assembled by Canadian-Universities.net.[34] Journalism schools are listed and classified on the "J-Schools & Programs" page of[35]

In the United States the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC)[36] applies nine standards in evaluating university programs: mission, governance and administration; curriculum and instruction; diversity and inclusiveness; full-time and part-time faculty; scholarship: research, creative and professional activity; student services; resources, facilities and equipment; professional and public service; and assessment of learning outcomes. The ACEJMCC has awarded accreditation to 109 university and college programs of study in journalism and mass communications, but does not attempt to rank the courses or programs. It accredits colleges, schools, Departments or "Divisions.

The listing of a unit as accredited indicates that the unit has been judged by ACEJMC to meet its standards. That judgment is rendered after a self-study prepared by the faculty and administration of the unit and an independent evaluation of the unit by educators and practitioners.The listing shows the bachelor's and professional master's degree programs that were examined during the unit's most recent accreditation review. Some units offer degrees in addition to those listed here. ACEJMC does not accredit programs leading to the Ph.D., which is considered a research (and not a professional) degree. The Council does not list sequences or specialties.

There are only four graduate-only journalism programs in North America: Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, CUNY School of Journalism, UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and University of British Columbia Graduate School of Journalism.

Editor & Publisher has presented an unranked list of leading journalism schools[37][dead link], while U.S. News & World Report produces annual lists of the top schools in advertising, print, and other categories based on responses to questionnaires sent to deans and faculty members.[citation needed] A list based on a variety of resources claims to identify the "ten most popular journalism schools in the United States".[38] One critic has pointed to the anecdotal nature of much j-school ranking in the absence of effective tracking of journalism graduates' career paths.[39]

· South America

An evaluation of developments in journalism education in Latin America has been undertaken by Professor Rosental Calmon Alves.[40]

· Journalism schools in Colombia

In Colombia, the high court determined in 1998 that journalism was not a career. This High court said that journalism is a human right, not a profession.

Because of the ruling there are many schools of communications in Colombia where people study to work in mainly enterprises, but not in mass media

There are only two schools of journalism:

University of Antioquia, a public institution in Medellín, offers Journalism inside the Communications faculty.[41] And University of Rosario in Bogotá, a private institution offers Public Opinion Journalism[42]

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