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ƒЋя ƒќѕќЋЌ»“≈Ћ№Ќќ√ќ „“≈Ќ»я




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ќбобщающа€ работа по современным исследовани€м и теори€м интимных взаимоотношений.

Coleman —., Ganong L. H. Love and sex role stereotypes: Do macho men and feminine women make better lovers? Ч Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985,49( 1 ), 170-176.

»сследовано вли€ние сексуально-ролевой ориентации на чувства и поведение, св€зываемые с любовью.

Dunn J., Munn P. Becoming a family member: Family conflict and the development of social understanding. Ч Child Development, 1985, 56, 480-492.

ѕоказано раннее возникновение прив€занностей и конфликтов у детей и понимание ими эмоций, выражаемых в семье.

Hatfield E., Schmitz E., Cornelius J., Rapson R. L. Passionate love: How early does it begin? Ч Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 1988, 1(1), 35-51.

ќбзор теорий и исследований, посв€щенных романтической либо страстной любви. —делана попытка определить страстную любовь. ќбсуждаетс€ роль психологического возбуждени€, положительных и отрицательных эмоций.

Stenberg R. A triangular theory of love. Ч Psychological Review, 1985, 93, 119-135.

“еори€ любви, в которой страсти, интимности и прив€занности.отводитс€ роль динамических факторов, используемых дл€ объ€снени€ природы любовных взаимоотношений.

White GЈ L., FishbeinS., Rutstein J. Passionate love and the misattribution of arousal.Ч Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, 41, 56-62.

»сследование воздействи€ несексуального романтического возбуждени€ на романтические чувства и сексуальную привлекательность.

Ёпилог

¬ последней работе, посв€щенной роли эмоций в эволюции человека, автор определил их как Ђспецифические состо€ни€, сформированные естественным отбором, способствующие адаптации в специфических ситуаци€хї (Messe, 1990, р. 261). јвтор, следом за другими процитированными выше учеными, утверждает, что специфические эмоции, и в частности их нейронный, поведенческий и переживательный компоненты, повышают способность индивидуума распор€жатьс€ возможност€ми, соответствовать требовани€м и противосто€ть угрозам социальной и физической среды.

Ётот учебник во многом испытал на себе вли€ние эволюционистской точки зрени€, в нем € попыталс€ представить теоретические и экспериментальные данные, подтверждающие идею о том, что эмоции сыграли весьма важную роль в эволюции человека, что они продолжают играть существенную роль в индивидуальном развитии человека, помогают ему адаптироватьс€ к изменчивым услови€м жизни. Ёмоции выполн€ют эти функции благодар€ своей способности организовывать и мотивировать когнитивные процессы и поведение, необходимые дл€ эффективного взаимодействи€ индивида со средой.

—тарое представление об эмоци€х как эпифеноменальных, преход€щих состо€ни€х, не подлежащих научному исследованию, уже неприемлемо. Ќа смену ему пришел функциональный подход, который расшир€ет наши знани€ об эмоци€х, побуждает к исследованию их характеристик и функций.   счастью, функциональный подход начинает получать распространение и среди нейрофизиологов, исследовани€ которых станут фундаментом науки, св€зывающей воедино эмоции и функции конкретных мозговых структур и процессов.

Ќа сегодн€шний день выработаны общие подходы к некоторым центральным вопросам теории эмоций. “ак, например, достигнуто общее согласие по четырем важнейшим теоретическим посылкам. ¬о-первых, общепризнанно, что эмоциональна€ экспресси€ выполн€ет важные коммуникативные функции, что особенно очевидно про€вл€етс€ в раннем детстве. ¬о-вторых, все ученые согласны с тем, что эмоциональные переживани€ вли€ют на воспри€тие, мышление и поведение. ¬-третьих, эмоции лежат в основе социальных св€зей и €вл€ютс€ интегральными составл€ющими теории темперамента и личности. ¬-четвертых, исследование эмоций и их функций в различных возрастных группах необходимо не только дл€ понимани€ нормального развити€ личности, но также дл€ диагностики и лечени€ психических нарушений. Ёмпирические исследовани€, все более многочисленные и разнообразные, подтверждают истинность этих четырех посылок, на которых построены все основные теории эмоций.

¬ заключение несколько слов о позитивных эмоци€х. ”же давно психологи предполагали, что позитивные эмоции та€т в себе целительные силы широкого спектра, применимые как в отношении физического самочувстви€, так и в смысле повышени€ эффективности интеллектуальной де€тельности. “еперь эти предположени€ уже нельз€ считать абстрактной гипотезой. ¬ данном учебнике представлены надежные доказательства, подтверждающие догадку о том, что позитивные эмоции способствуют целому р€ду конструктивных психологических свойств, таких как креативность, альтруистическое поведение и др.

—ѕ»—ќ  Ћ»“≈–ј“”–џ

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