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sleeping--is the highest service. That is the real foundation for an

economic system. We can make things--the problem of production has been

solved brilliantly. We can make any number of different sort of things

by the millions. The material mode of our life is splendidly provided

for. There are enough processes and improvements now pigeonholed and

awaiting application to bring the physical side of life to almost

millennial completeness. But we are too wrapped up in the things we are

doing--we are not enough concerned with the reasons why we do them. Our

whole competitive system, our whole creative expression, all the play of

our faculties seem to be centred around material production and its

by-products of success and wealth.

 

There is, for instance, a feeling that personal or group benefit can be

had at the expense of other persons or groups. There is nothing to be

gained by crushing any one. If the farmer's bloc should crush the

manufacturers would the farmers be better off? If the manufacturer's

bloc should crush the farmers, would the manufacturers be better off?

Could Capital gain by crushing Labour? Or Labour by crushing Capital? Or

does a man in business gain by crushing a competitor? No, destructive

competition benefits no one. The kind of competition which results in

the defeat of the many and the overlordship of the ruthless few must go.

Destructive competition lacks the qualities out of which progress comes.

Progress comes from a generous form of rivalry. Bad competition is

personal. It works for the aggrandizement of some individual or group.

It is a sort of warfare. It is inspired by a desire to "get" someone. It

is wholly selfish. That is to say, its motive is not pride in the

product, nor a desire to excel in service, nor yet a wholesome ambition

to approach to scientific methods of production. It is moved simply by

the desire to crowd out others and monopolize the market for the sake of

the money returns. That being accomplished, it always substitutes a

product of inferior quality.

 

* * * * *

 

Freeing ourselves from the petty sort of destructive competition frees

us from many set notions. We are too closely tied to old methods and

single, one-way uses. We need more mobility. We have been using

certain things just one way, we have been sending certain goods

through only one channel--and when that use is slack, or that channel

is stopped, business stops, too, and all the sorry consequences of

"depression" set in. Take corn, for example. There are millions upon

millions of bushels of corn stored in the United States with no

visible outlet. A certain amount of corn is used as food for man and

beast, but not all of it. In pre-Prohibition days a certain amount of

corn went into the making of liquor, which was not a very good use for

good corn. But through a long course of years corn followed those two

channels, and when one of them stopped the stocks of corn began to

pile up. It is the money fiction that usually retards the movement of

stocks, but even if money were plentiful we could not possibly consume

the stores of food which we sometimes possess.

 

If foodstuffs become too plentiful to be consumed as food, why not find

other uses for them? Why use corn only for hogs and distilleries? Why

sit down and bemoan the terrible disaster that has befallen the corn

market? Is there no use for corn besides the making of pork or the

making of whisky? Surely there must be. There should be so many uses for

corn that only the important uses could ever be fully served; there

ought always be enough channels open to permit corn to be used without

waste.

 

Once upon a time the farmers burned corn as fuel--corn was plentiful and

coal was scarce. That was a crude way to dispose of corn, but it

contained the germ of an idea. There is fuel in corn; oil and fuel

alcohol are obtainable from corn, and it is high time that someone was

opening up this new use so that the stored-up corn crops may be moved.

Why have only one string to our bow? Why not two? If one breaks, there

is the other. If the hog business slackens, why should not the farmer

turn his corn into tractor fuel?

 

We need more diversity all round. The four-track system everywhere would

not be a bad idea. We have a single-track money system. It is a mighty

fine system for those who own it. It is a perfect system for the

interest-collecting, credit-controlling financiers who literally own the

commodity called Money and who literally own the machinery by which

money is made and used. Let them keep their system if they like it. But

the people are finding out that it is a poor system for what we call

"hard times" because it ties up the line and stops traffic. If there are

special protections for the interests, there ought also to be special

protections for the plain people. Diversity of outlet, of use, and of

financial enablement, are the strongest defenses we can have against

economic emergencies.

 

It is likewise with Labour. There surely ought to be flying squadrons of

young men who would be available for emergency conditions in harvest

field, mine, shop, or railroad. If the fires of a hundred industries

threaten to go out for lack of coal, and one million men are menaced by

unemployment, it would seem both good business and good humanity for a

sufficient number of men to volunteer for the mines and the railroads.

There is always something to be done in this world, and only ourselves

to do it. The whole world may be idle, and in the factory sense there

may be "nothing to do." There may be nothing to do in this place or

that, but there is always something to do. It is this fact which should

urge us to such an organization of ourselves that this "something to be

done" may get done, and unemployment reduced to a minimum.

 

* * * * *

 

Every advance begins in a small way and with the individual. The mass

can be no better than the sum of the individuals. Advancement begins

within the man himself; when he advances from half-interest to strength

of purpose; when he advances from hesitancy to decisive directness; when

he advances from immaturity to maturity of judgment; when he advances

from apprenticeship to mastery; when he advances from a mere _dilettante_

at labour to a worker who finds a genuine joy in work; when he advances

from an eye-server to one who can be entrusted to do his work without

oversight and without prodding--why, then the world advances! The

advance is not easy. We live in flabby times when men are being taught

that everything ought to be easy. Work that amounts to anything will

never be easy. And the higher you go in the scale of responsibility, the

harder becomes the job. Ease has its place, of course. Every man who

works ought to have sufficient leisure. The man who works hard should

have his easy chair, his comfortable fireside, his pleasant

surroundings. These are his by right. But no one deserves ease until

after his work is done. It will never be possible to put upholstered

ease into work. Some work is needlessly hard. It can be lightened by

proper management. Every device ought to be employed to leave a man free

to do a man's work. Flesh and blood should not be made to bear burdens

that steel can bear. But even when the best is done, work still remains

work, and any man who puts himself into his job will feel that it is

work.

 

And there cannot be much picking and choosing. The appointed task may be

less than was expected. A man's real work is not always what he would

have chosen to do. A man's real work is what he is chosen to do. Just

now there are more menial jobs than there will be in the future; and as

long as there are menial jobs, someone will have to do them; but there

is no reason why a man should be penalized because his job is menial.

There is one thing that can be said about menial jobs that cannot be

said about a great many so-called more responsible jobs, and that is,

they are useful and they are respectable and they are honest.

 

The time has come when drudgery must be taken out of labour. It is not

work that men object to, but the element of drudgery. We must drive out

drudgery wherever we find it. We shall never be wholly civilized until

we remove the treadmill from the daily job. Invention is doing this in

some degree now. We have succeeded to a very great extent in relieving

men of the heavier and more onerous jobs that used to sap their

strength, but even when lightening the heavier labour we have not yet

succeeded in removing monotony. That is another field that beckons

us--the abolition of monotony, and in trying to accomplish that we shall

doubtless discover other changes that will have to be made in our

system.

 

* * * * *

 

The opportunity to work is now greater than ever it was. The opportunity

to advance is greater. It is true that the young man who enters industry

to-day enters a very different system from that in which the young man

of twenty-five years ago began his career. The system has been tightened

up; there is less play or friction in it; fewer matters are left to the

haphazard will of the individual; the modern worker finds himself part

of an organization which apparently leaves him little initiative. Yet,

with all this, it is not true that "men are mere machines." It is not

true that opportunity has been lost in organization. If the young man

will liberate himself from these ideas and regard the system as it is,

he will find that what he thought was a barrier is really an aid.

 

Factory organization is not a device to prevent the expansion of

ability, but a device to reduce the waste and losses due to mediocrity.

It is not a device to hinder the ambitious, clear-headed man from doing

his best, but a device to prevent the don't-care sort of individual from

doing his worst. That is to say, when laziness, carelessness,

slothfulness, and lack-interest are allowed to have their own way,

everybody suffers. The factory cannot prosper and therefore cannot pay

living wages. When an organization makes it necessary for the don't-care

class to do better than they naturally would, it is for their

benefit--they are better physically, mentally, and financially. What

wages should we be able to pay if we trusted a large don't-care class to

their own methods and gait of production?

 

If the factory system which brought mediocrity up to a higher standard

operated also to keep ability down to a lower standard--it would be a

very bad system, a very bad system indeed. But a system, even a perfect

one, must have able individuals to operate it. No system operates

itself. And the modern system needs more brains for its operation than

did the old. More brains are needed to-day than ever before, although

perhaps they are not needed in the same place as they once were. It is

just like power: formerly every machine was run by foot power; the power

was right at the machine. But nowadays we have moved the power

back--concentrated it in the power-house. Thus also we have made it

unnecessary for the highest types of mental ability to be engaged in

every operation in the factory. The better brains are in the mental

power-plant.

 

Every business that is growing is at the same time creating new places

for capable men. It cannot help but do so. This does not mean that new

openings come every day and in groups. Not at all. They come only after

hard work; it is the fellow who can stand the gaff of routine and still

keep himself alive and alert who finally gets into direction. It is not

sensational brilliance that one seeks in business, but sound,

substantial dependability. Big enterprises of necessity move slowly and

cautiously. The young man with ambition ought to take a long look ahead

and leave an ample margin of time for things to happen.

 

* * * * *

 

A great many things are going to change. We shall learn to be masters

rather than servants of Nature. With all our fancied skill we still

depend largely on natural resources and think that they cannot be

displaced. We dig coal and ore and cut down trees. We use the coal and

the ore and they are gone; the trees cannot be replaced within a

lifetime. We shall some day harness the heat that is all about us and no

longer depend on coal--we may now create heat through electricity

generated by water power. We shall improve on that method. As chemistry

advances I feel quite certain that a method will be found to transform

growing things into substances that will endure better than the

metals--we have scarcely touched the uses of cotton. Better wood can be

made than is grown. The spirit of true service will create for us. We

have only each of us to do our parts sincerely.

 

* * * * *

 

Everything is possible ... "faith is the substance of things hoped for,

the evidence of things not seen."

 

 

THE BOOK ENDS

 

 

INDEX

 

Absentees discharged,

Accidents, safeguarding against; causes of

Advancement, personal

Advertisement, first, of Ford Motor Co.

Agents,

Agriculture, a primary function

Ainsley, Charles

Alexander, Henry, drives Ford car to top of Ben Nevis, 4,600 feet,

in 1911

Antecedents, a man's, of no interest in hiring at Ford factory

Assembly of a Ford car; first experiment in a moving assembly line,

April 1, 1913; results of the experiment

Automobile, public's first attitude toward

Automobile business, bad methods of; in its beginnings

Bankers play too great a part in business; in railroads

Banking,

Bedridden men at work,

Benz car on exhibition at Macy's in 1885,

Birds, Mr. Ford's fondness for

Blind men can work,

Bolshevism,

Bonuses--_See_ "Profit-Sharing"

Borrowing money; what it would have meant to Ford Motor Co. in 1920

British Board of Agriculture,

British Cabinet and Fordson tractors,

Burroughs, John

Business, monopoly and profiteering bad for; function of

Buying for immediate needs only,

Cadillac Company,

Capital,

Capitalist newspapers,

Capitalists,

Cash balance, large

Charity, professional

City life,

"Classes" mostly fictional,

Classification of work at Ford plants,

Cleanliness of factory,

Coal used in Ford plants from Ford mines,

Coke ovens at River Rouge plant,

Collier, Colonel D. C.

Competition,

Consumption varies according to price and quality,

Convict labour,

Cooper, Tom

Cooperative farming,

Cork, Ireland, Fordson tractor plant

Corn, potential uses of

Costs of production, records of; prices force down; high wages

contribute to low

Country, living in

Courtney, F. S.

Creative work,

Creed, industrial, Mr. Ford's

Cripples can work,

Cross, John E.

Dalby, Prof. W. E.,

Deaf and dumb men at work,

_Dearborn Independent_,

Dearborn plant,

Democracy,

Detroit Automobile Co.,

Detroit General Hospital, now Ford Hospital,

Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway, purchased by Ford Motor Co.,

in March, 1921,

Development, opportunity for, in U. S.,

Diamond Manufacturing Co. fire,

Discipline at Ford plants,

"Dividends, abolish, rather than lower wages,"

Dividends, small, Ford policy of,

Doctors,

Dollar, the fluctuating,

Drudgery,

 

Eagle Boats,

Economy,

Edison, Thomas A.,

Educated man, an; definition of,

Education, Mr. Ford's ideas on,

Educational Department,

Electricity generated at Ford plants,

"Employees, all, are really partners,"

Employment Department,

Equal, all men are not,

Experience, lack of, no bar to employment,

Experiments, no record of, kept at Ford factories,

"Experts," no, at Ford plants,

 

Factory, Ford, growth of,

Factory organization, function of,

Failure, habit of,

Farming, lack of knowledge in, no conflict between, and industry,

future development in,

Farming with tractors,

Fear,

Federal Reserve System,

Fighting, a cause for immediate discharge,

Finance,

Financial crisis in 1921, how Ford Motor Co. met,

Financial system at present inadequate,

Firestone, Harvey S.,

Flat Rock plant,

Floor space for workers,

Flour-milling,

Foodstuffs, potential uses of,

Ford car--

the first, No. 5,000,000,

the second, introduction of,

in England in 1903,

about 5,000 parts in,

sales and production--_See_ "Sales"

Ford, Henry--

Born at Dearborn, Mich., July 30, 1863,

mechanically inclined,

leaves school at seventeen, becomes apprentice at Drydock Engine

Works,

watch repairer,

works with local representative of Westinghouse Co. as expert in

setting up and repairing road engines,

builds a steam tractor in his workshop,

reads of the "silent gas engine" in the _World of Science_,

in 1887 builds one on the Otto four-cycle model,

father gives him forty acres of timber land,

marriage,

in 1890 begins work on double-cylinder engine,

leaves farm and works as engineer and machinist with the Detroit

Electric Co.,

rents house in Detroit and sets up workshop in back yard,

in 1892 completes first motor car,

first road test in 1893,

builds second motor car,

quits job with Electric Co. August 15, 1899, and goes into

automobile business,

organization of Detroit Automobile Co.,

resigns from, in 1902,

rents shop to continue experiments at 81 Park Place, Detroit,

beats Alexander Winton in race,

early reflections on business,

in 1903 builds, with Tom Cooper, two cars, the "999" and the

"Arrow" for speed,

forms the Ford Motor Co.,

buys controlling share in 1906,

builds "Model A,"

builds "Model B" and "Model C,"

makes a record in race over ice in the "Arrow,"

builds first real manufacturing plant, in May, 1908,

assembles 311 cars in six workings days,

in June, 1908, assembles one hundred cars in one day,

in 1909, decides to manufacture only "Model T," painted black,

buys sixty acres of land for plant at Highland Park, outside of

Detroit,

how he met the financial crises of 1921,

buys Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Ry., March, 1921,

"Ford doesn't use the Ford,"

Ford, Edsel,

Ford Hospital,

Ford Motor Co., organized 1903,

Henry Ford buys controlling share in 1906,

how it met financial crisis in 1921,

thirty-five branches of, in U. S.

"Ford, you can dissect it, but you cannot kill it,"

Fordson tractor,

prices,

genesis and development of,

cost of farming with,

5,000 sent to England in 1917-18,

Foreign trade,

 

Gas from coke ovens at River Rouge plant utilized,

"Gold is not wealth,"

"Good feeling" in working not essential, though desirable,

Government, the function of,

Greaves, R. N.,

Greed vs. service,

Greenhall, Gilbert,

Grosse Point track,

 

"Habit conduces to a certain inertia,"

Highland Park plant,

Hobbs, Robert W.,

Hospital, Ford,

Hough, Judge, renders decision against Ford Motor Co. in Selden

Patent suit,

Hours of labour per day reduced from nine to eight in January, 1914,

"Human, a great business is too big to be,"

Human element in business,

 

Ideas, old and new,

Improvements in products,

Interstate Commerce Commission,

Inventory, cutting down, by improved freight service,

Investment, interest on, not properly chargeable to operating expenses,

 

Jacobs, Edmund,

"Jail, men in, ought to be able to support their families,"

Jewish question, studies in the,

Jobs, menial,

"John R. Street,"

 

Labour,

the economic fundamental, and Capital, potential uses of,

Labour leaders,

Labour newspapers,

Labour turnover,

"Lawyers, like bankers, know absolutely nothing about business,"

Legislation, the function of,

Licensed Association,

"Life is not a location, but a journey,"

Light for working,

Loss, taking a; in times of business depression,

 

Manchester, Eng.,

Ford plant at,

strike at,

Machinery, its place in life,

Manufacture, a primary function,

Medical Department,

Mexico,

Milner, Lord,

Models--

"A,"

"B,"

"C,"

"F,"

"K,"

"N,"

"R,"

"S,"

"T,"

changing, not a Ford policy,

 

Money,

chasing,

present system of,

what it is worth,

invested in a business not chargeable to it,

fluctuating value of,

is not wealth,

Monopoly, bad for business,

Monotonous work,

Motion, waste, eliminating,

 

Northville, Mich., plant, combination farm and factory,

 

Oldfteld, Barney,

Opportunity for young men of today,

Organization, excess, and red tape,

Overman, Henry,

Otto engine,

Overhead charge per car, cut from $146 to $93,

 

Parts, about 5,000, in a Ford car,

Paternalism has no place in industry,

"Peace Ship"

Philanthropy,

Physical incapacity not necessarily a hindrance to working,

Physicians,

Piquette plant,

Poverty,

Power-farming,

Price policy, Mr. Ford's,

Producer depends upon service,

Production,

principles of Ford plant,

plan of, worked out carefully,

(For production of Ford cars, _see_ "Sales" and table of

production on p. 145)

Professional charity,

Profiteering, bad for business,

Profit-sharing,

Property, the right of,

Profit, small per article, large aggregate,

Profits belong to planner, producer, and purchaser,

Price

raising,

reducing,

"Prices, If, of goods are above the incomes of the people, then get

the prices down to the incomes,"

"Prices, unduly high, always a sign of unsound business,"

Prices of Ford touring cars since 1909,

Prison laws,

"Prisoners ought to be able to support their families,"

 

Railroads,

active managers have ceased to manage,

suffering from bankers and lawyers,

folly of long hauls,

Reactionaries,

Red tape,

"Refinancing,"

Reformers,

Repetitive labour,

"Rich, It is no longer a distinction to be,"

Right of property,

River Rouge plant,

Routine work,

Royal Agricultural Society,

Rumours in 1920 that Ford Motor Co. was in a bad financial condition,

Russia, under Sovietism,

 

Safeguarding machines,

"Sales depend upon wages,"

Sales of Ford cars

in 1903-4, 1,708 cars,

in 1904-5, 1,695 cars,

in 1905-6, 1,599 cars,

in 1906-7, 8,423 cars,

in 1907-8, 6,398 cars,

in 1908-9, 10,607 cars,

in 1909-10, 18,664 cars,

in 1910-11, 84,528 cars,

see also table of production since 1909,

Saturation, point of,

Saving habit,

Schools,

trade,

Henry Ford Trade School,

Scottish Reliability Trials, test of Ford car in

Scrap, utilization of,

Seasonal unemployment,

Selden, George B.,

Selden Patent,

famous suit against Ford Motor Co., in 1909,

Service,

principles of,

"the foundation of real business,"

"comes before profit,"

Simplicity, philosophy of,

Social Department,

Sorensen, Charles E.,

Standard Oil Co.,

Standardization,

Statistics abolished in 1920,

Steel, vanadium,

Strelow's carpenter shop,

Strike, the right to,

Strikes,

why, fail,

Suggestions from employees,

Surgeons' fees,

Sweepings, saving, nets $6,000 a year,

 

Titles, no, to jobs at Ford factory,

Tractor--_See_ "Fordson"

Trade, foreign,

Trade schools,

Henry Ford Trade School

Training, little, required for jobs at Ford plants,

Transportation, a primary function,

Turnover of goods,

 

Union labour,

Universal car, essential attributes of,

 

Vanadium steel,

Ventilation of factory,

 

Wages,

minimum of $6 a day at all Ford plants,

are partnership distributions,

fallacy of regulating, on basis of cost of, living,

sales depend upon,

minimum of $5 a day introduced in January, 1914,

danger in rapidly raising,

cutting, a slovenly way to meet business depression,

high, contribute to low cost,

abolish dividends rather than lower,

War,

opposition to,

Ford industries in the,

Waste,

vs. service,

eliminating,

Weeks-McLean Bird Bill,

Weight, excess, in an automobile,

Welfare work--_See_ "Social Department," "Medical

Department," and "Educational Department."

Winton, Alexander,

Women, married, whose husbands have jobs, not employed at Ford plants,

Work,

its place in life,

the right to

Отображения. Образы и прообразы линий

Предварительно следует прочитать п. 1.3. из [1].

Пусть G и D – области на комплексной плоскости. Будем говорить, что задано отображение из G в D ( ), если для всякой точки по некоторому правилу или закону поставлена в соответствие точка . Точка называется образом точки , а точка - прообразом точки при отображении . Соответственно, если Г и L – кривые в комплексной плоскости, то - образ кривой Г, а - прообраз кривой L при отображении .







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