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Answer the following questions about the text. 1. What changes took place in the organization of most newspaper publishing businesses?

1. What changes took place in the organization of most newspaper publishing businesses?

2. Name the journalistic staff mentioned in the text and describe their responsibilities.

Text C

Press Council’s 16-point Code of Practice

The Press Council's 16-point code of practice sets out stringent standards of journalistic behaviour for newspapers and magazines, following criticism of the standards of the press from the public and politicians.

It is the first time the Council has brought together in written form its adjudications over the years, and was drawn up with the co-operation of national and regional newspapers and magazines as part of the Press Council's working and functions.

The code follows the decision by national newspapers to publish their own code of conduct and appoint readers’ representatives to handle complaints.

The Press Council's code is more wide ranging than the editors code but does not contradict it.

The code also says that newspapers, periodicals, and journalists have a duty to defend the freedom of the press in the interests of the public, and to resist censorship.

1. Accuracy. It is the duty of newspapers not to publish deliberately or carelessly inaccuracies or statements designed to mislead, and to correct promptly and with due prominence significant inaccuracies which they have published, or misleading statements, for which they are responsible, apologizing for these where appropriate.

2. Opportunity to reply. It is the duty of newspapers to allow a fair opportunity for reply when reasonably called for.

3. Privacy. Publishing material or making inquiries about the private lives of individuals without their consent is not acceptable unless these are in the public interest overriding the right of privacy. The Press Council's Declaration of Principle on Privacy should be observed.

4. Comment and fact. Newspapers are free to be partisan but they should distinguish between comment and fact. Conjecture should not be elevated into statements of fact.

5. Subterfuge.Newspapers and journalists serving them should use straightforward means to obtain information or pictures. Their use of subterfuge can be justified only to obtain material which ought to be
published in the public interest and which could not be obtained by other means.

6. Payments for articles.Payments or offers of payment for stories, pictures or information should not be made to witnesses or potential witnesses in current criminal proceedings or to people engaged in crime or their associates except where the material concerned ought to be published in the public interest, and the payment is necessary to enable this. The Press Council's Declaration of principle on Payment for Articles should be observed.

7. Intruding into grief. Newspapers and journalists serving them should in general avoid intruding into personal grief. Inquiries should be carried out with sympathy and discretion.

8. Innocent relatives. Newspapers should exercise care and discretion before identifying relatives of persons convicted or accused of crime where the reference to them is not directly relevant to the matter reported.

9. Interviewing children. Journalists should not normally interview a child under the age of 16 in the absence of, or without the consent of, a parent or other adult responsible for the child.

10. Children in sex cases. Save in exceptional circumstances newspapers should not, even where the law permits it, identify children under the age of 16 as victims, witnesses, or defendants involved in cases concerning sexual offences.

11. Rape victims. Newspapers should not identify victims of rape, or publish material likely to contribute to such identification.

12. Pictures. Newspapers should refrain from publishing pictures which needlessly exacerbate grief or cause distress.

13. Race and colour. Newspapers should not publish material likely to encourage discrimination on grounds of race or colour and newspapers should avoid reference to people’s race or colour in prejudicial or pejorative contexts unless they are directly relevant to the story.

14. Financial journalism. Journalists should not use for their own profit financial information they receive in advance of its general publication. The Press Council’s Declaration of Principle on Financial Journalism should be observed.

15. Hospitals. Journalists making inquiries at hospitals or similar institutions should identify themselves to a responsible official before entering, except in very rare cases where information, which ought to be disclosed could not otherwise be obtained.

16. Confidential sources. Journalists have an obligation to protect confidential sources of information.

Text D

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