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Упр. 279. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы вPassiveVoice.

1. Собор Святого Павла строил архитектор Рен. 2. Когда написали письмо? 3. Куда положили книги? 4. За доктором пошлют завтра. 5. В Санкт Петербурге строят много домов. 6. Произведения английских и американских писателей издают во всем мире. 7. Стихи Роберта Бернса знают во многих странах мира. 8. Когда Чарльз Диккенс был маленьким мальчиком, его отца посадили в долговую тюрьму. 9. Эта опера была написана сто лет назад. 10. Этот роман уже переведен на пять языков. 11. Обед варили, когда я пришел домой. 12. К тому времени, как он приехал, письмо было уже получено. 13. Наш дом сейчас ремонтируют. 14. Колю как раз спрашивают. 15. Книги уже принесли из библиотеки? 16. Этот кинотеатр был построен до того, как мы приехали сюда. 17. Где сейчас ваш брат? Его послали во Францию. 18. О вас только что говорили. 19. Дома над ней посмеялись. 20. «Мне только что приказали ввести пленных,» — сказал солдат. 21. Кто написал это письмо? 22. Эти цветы только что сорвали. 23. Тебя вчера просили прийти пораньше? 24. В будущем году его пьеса будет поставлена в этом театре. 25. За этим профессором всегда посылают в трудных ситуациях.


I. Переведите следующие предложения:


1. The Leningrad metro was being constructed when the Great Patriotic war broke up. 2. In Soviet times Tsiolkovsky's ideas were recognised and he was given state support. 3. We were told about the sad state of art in eastern regions. 4. The lightness of hydrogen is made use of in the filling of balloons. 5. Safety and protection for the people working around the atomic reactor are provided by a mass of reinforced concrete, 8 feet thick. 6. Radio sets are provided for in all sea going vessels. 7. The discovery of radium was followed by a number of important inventions. 8. The current is measured with the ammeter. 9. The expedition was given a very difficult task. 10. The balloon has been lost sight of. 11. This problem may be approached from different standpoints. 12. Spanish is spoken in South America. 13. His words were followed by a deep silence.


1. The question of further development of agriculture was given much attention. 2. The trajectory of a projectile is affected to a large extent by air resistance. 3. We are taught that light is a form of energy. 4. A floating body is acted upon by two sets of forces. 5. This project must be given due consideration. 6. 65.4 parts of zinc and 2 parts of hydrogen are spoken of as chemically equivalent quantities. 7. No electric charges have ever been observed of smaller magnitude than the charges of proton or electron. 8. Nuclear reactor is provided with a concrete shielding. 9. The Conference was attended by 150 delegates. 10. The speaker was listened to attentively. 11. We were given an exceptionally warm welcome by Zulu students. 12. Have you been brought a newspaper? 13. Potatoes were brought to Europe by Columbus.

II. Переведите текст; выделите в тексте случаи употребления пассивной формы и дайте возможные варианты перевода:


It has been proved that all coals had their origin in the vegetable matter of prehistoric forests. The woody fiber and other vegetable matter were transformed into peat by fermentation due to bacteria. During this process, a great part of the oxygen and hydrogen was eliminated, while the amount of carbon remained practically the same. Subsequently the peaty matter was changed into coal by a process of destructive distillation, which had been caused by great pressure and high temperature. The differences in types of coal can be easily explained by different conditions during this process of evolution. Among these variable conditions by which the formation of coal had been affected the following may be mentioned: time, depth of the bed below the surface of the earth, and amount of disturbance of the bed due to movements of the earth.

Foreign matter was introduced during this movement of the earth. Coal is composed of the following principal elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur. However, these are not present solely in their elementary state, but also in various combinations, principally moisture and volatile matter. Consequently, coal is classified into various types according to its constituents; some of these types will be mentioned below.

Peat is an intermediate condition between wood and coal. It is often used as fuel in the Temperate Zone, where it is found in large quantities in the swampy regions. It is commonly cut into blocks and dried in the air.

Bituminous coal is the name which is usually given to coal containing more than 20 per cent volatile matter. Bituminous coal is not susceptible to spontaneous combustion, although care must be exercised in its storage. Since there is a wide range of variation in the characteristics of the bituminous coals, they have been divided commercially into the following classes: coking, cannel, and non-coking. Coking coal, upon being burned gives off considerable gas and tends to fuse together in a pasty mass (coke). Cannel coal has a high percentage of volatile hydrocarbons, ignites easily and is so valuable as a gas-producing coal that it is rarely burned to produce steam.


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