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Ways of Translating the Conditional Mood

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The Conditional mood formed with the help of the auxiliary verb would (for all the persons singular/plural) and infinitive (without particle to) is translated by means of the Ukrainian particle б/би referring to present, past or future as in the following cases:

a) in the principle clause of the complex sentence, e.g.: It would be madness to start in management unless one had at least three plays (S. Maugham). Було б просто божевіллям братись за організацію трупи, доки нема/не маєш хоча б трьох п’єс;

b) in the compound or simple sentences, e.g.: I have no time or I would go for a walk with you. – У мене немає часу, а то я пішла б з тобою гуляти.

I said, and would have said more about this, only Lefty cut me short. – Я сказала, і сказала б більше про це, але Лефті перервав мене.


1. Identify the meanings of the Subjunctive mood forms in the following sentences and translate them into Ukrainian.

1. I wish I knew what made you engage upon these studies. I should have thought your medical profession protected you from any tenderness towards superstition. 2. I’m most grateful for your advice. I very much wish I could accept it. It would make things easier for me. 3. I was afraid lest my aunt should be displeased with me. 4. On the way across the Park he, who knew more about it than most men, had been gloomy over the military future. Now he spoke as though his daughter had really been the problem on his mind. He spoke exactly as a Victorian parent might have spoken, as though all the future were predictable and secure except for his daughter’s marriage, and the well-being of his grandchildren. 5. Charles added this lest he should seem to be talking the whole thing far too seriously. 6. I’ve always lived for my husband and my family, nothing else. No outside interests, no hobbies, really. So that now, if I were to make some display of how I am feeling I wouldn’t be at all typical of me, would it? 7. “I hate the whole house”, continued Miss Sharp in a fury. “I hope I may never set eyes on it again. I wish it were in the bottom of the Thames, I do; and if Miss Pinkerton were there, I couldn’t pick her out that I wouldn’t. Oh, how I should like to see her floating in the water, turban and all, with her train streaming after her, and her nose like the beak of a wherry”. 8. If it had not been for his encouragement in the beginning, it was possible that I would not have had the desire and determination to go through the early years of apprenticeship that had been necessary before I could become a writer. 9. He has been an abnormally brave fighting officer in both wars, and had commanded a division in the second. That had been his ceiling. If he had been even reasonably capable, the military in the clubs used to say, he couldn’t have helped but go right to the top, since it was hard for a man to be better connected. 10. Should the works be finished sooner than planned, there would be always someone to pay you right away. 11. The situation would have worsened had it not been for the timely assistance. 12. If you were constantly being told off for doing the wrong thing, you would perhaps form the thought “I can’t do anything right”, and you may constantly overreact if your adult partner is always criticizing your behaviour. 13. I would have gone to her for shelter, but for her humble station, which made me fear that I might bring some trouble on her. 14. The end of her concert brought a tremendous reception from the audience. She returned for one encore but had the audience got their way she would have sung all night. 15. This could provide additional runway capacity beyond Terminal 5’s passenger capacity. 16. Britain’s argument that its nuclear weapons contribute to NATO’s strategic deterrent would be more credible if there were a credible strategic adversary on the European scene. 17. Happy they could have been, if they could have dismissed me at a month’s warning too.


2. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive mood forms in the following quotations used in complex sentences with subordinate clau­ses of condition. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. If I could always read, I should never feel the want of society (J. Byron). 2. You will hear more good things on the outside of a stagecoach from London to Oxford than if you were to pass a twelvemonth with the undergraduates, or heads of colleges, of that famous city (W. Hazlitt). 3. If all the year were playing holidays, to sport would be as tedious as to work (W. Shakespeare). 4. If wishes were horses, beggars would ride. If turnips were watches, I would wear one by my side. And if “ifs” and “ands” were pots and pans, there’d be no work for tinkers (Nursery rhyme). 5. If I hadn’t been a writer, I think I should have been a gardener (A. Chekhov). 6. We could never have loved the earth so well, if we had had no childhood in it. (G. Eliot). 7. I have loved the principle of beauty in all things, and if I had had time I would have made myself remembered (J. Keats). 8. We should have a great many fewer disputes in the world if words were taken for what they are, the signs of our ideas only, and not for things themselves (J. Locke). 9. Most people would succeed in small things if they were not troubled with great ambitions (H. Longfellow). 10. If all the world were just, there would be no need of valour (Plutarch). 11. Silence is the perfectest herald of joy; I were but little happy if I could say how much (W. Shakespeare). 12. If there had been a censorship of the press in Rome we should have had today neither Horace nor Juvenal, nor the philosophical writings of Cicero (F. Voltaire). 13. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter (T. Jefferson). 14. If dogs could talk, perhaps we’d find it just as hard to get along with them as we do with people (K. Capek). 15. If there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers (Ch. Dickens). 16. If I esteemed you less, Envy would kill pleasure (P.B. Shelley). 17. If Cleopatra’s nose had been shorter the whole history of the world would have been different (B. Pascal). 18. Had we lived, I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance, and courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of every Englishman (R.F. Scott). 19. If all the world and love were young, / And truth in every shepherd’s tongue, / These pretty pleasures might me move / To live with thee, and be my love (Sir W. Raleigh).


3. Comment on the meaning of the Subjunctive mood forms of the following quotations used in simple sentences with imp­lied condition, pseudo-subclauses of comparison and condition and comp­lex sentences with subordinate clauses of condition, concession and comparison. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. There would be no great ones, if there were no little ones (G. Herbert). 2. As if I would talk on such a subject (L. Carroll). 3. If youth knew, if age could. If only youth had the knowledge; if only age had the strength (H. Estienne). 4. I wish our clever young poets would remember my ho­mely definitions of prose and poetry; that is, prose – words in their best order; poetry – the best words in the best order (S. Coleridge). 5. The strain of illegitimacy, unbleached by nobility or wealth, would have been a strain indeed (E. Austen). 6. Looked as if she had walked straight out of the Ark! (S. Smith) 7. For all sad words of tongue or pen, the saddest are these: “It might have been” (J.G. Whittier). 8. Though all the world be false, still will I be true (A. Trollope). 9. “Boys will be boys –” And even that wouldn't matter if we could only prevent girls from being girls” (A. Hope). 10. I wish he would explain his explanation (G. Byron). 11. I wish you would read poetry sometimes. Your ignorance cramps my conversation (A. Hope). 12. If he were to be made honest by an act of parliament, I should not alter in my faith of him (B. Jonson). 13. We make guilty of our disasters the sun, the moon, and the stars; as if we were villains by necessity, fools by heavenly compulsion (W. Shakespeare). 14. If I were not Alexander I would wish to be Diogenes (Alexander of Macedon). 15. If parents would only realize how they bore their children (W. Shakespeare). 16. Reviewers are usually people who would have been poets, historians, biographers, etc., if they could; they have tried their talents at one or at the other, and have failed; therefore they turn critics. (S. Coleridge). 17. I wish I loved the Human Race; / I wish I loved its silly face; / I wish I liked the way it walks; / I wish I liked the way it talks; / And when I’m introduced to one, / I wish I thought What Jolly Fun! (W. Raleigh)


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