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Дата добавления: 2015-08-30; просмотров: 453
Encyclopedia describes globalization as a process of global economic, political and cultural integration, which are the main characteristics of the spread of capitalism around the world, the global division of labor migration on a global scale financial, human and industrial resources, as well as the standardization of economic and technological processes and the convergence of different cultures countries.
Some beginnings of globalization, we can trace already in antiquity. In particular, the Roman Empire was one of the first countries to establish its dominance over the Mediterranean and has led to a profound interweaving of different cultures and the emergence of the local division of labor in the Mediterranean. The origins of globalization are in the XVI and XVII centuries, when strong economic growth in Europe, combined with advances in navigation and geographic discoveries. As a result, Portuguese and Spanish traders spread around the world and engaged in the colonization of America. In the XVII century the Dutch East India Company, a seller with many Asian countries, is the first genuine transnational company. In the XIX century, rapid industrialization has led to an increase in trade and investment between the European powers and their colonies and the United States. During this period, unfair trade with developing countries was in the nature of imperialist exploitation. In the first half of the XX century, the processes of globalization have been interrupted by two world wars and separates them a period of economic downturn. After the Second World War, globalization has resumed at an accelerated pace. She contributed to the improvements in technology that have led to the rapid sea, rail and air transport, as well as access to international telephone services.
The removal of barriers to international trade in 1947 was engaged in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) - a series of agreements between the major capitalist countries and developing countries. In 1995, 75 participants formed the GATT World Trade Organization (WTO). Since then, 21 countries have acceded to the WTO, and 28 countries, including Russia, are negotiating to join. There are also large regional areas of economic integration. In 1992, the European Union has become a single economic space after the Maastricht Treaty. This space provides for the abolition of customs duties and the free movement of labor and capital, as well as a unified monetary system based on the euro. Less tight integration occurs between the participants of the North American Free Trade Area: United States, Canada and Mexico. Most of the former republics of the Soviet Union came after the collapse of the Commonwealth of Independent States, providing elements of a common economic space.