|Главная Случайная страница
Разделы: Автомобили Астрономия Биология География Дом и сад Другие языки Другое Информатика История Культура Литература Логика Математика Медицина Металлургия Механика Образование Охрана труда Педагогика Политика Право Психология Религия Риторика Социология Спорт Строительство Технология Туризм Физика Философия Финансы Химия Черчение Экология Экономика Электроника
The Primitive Community
The history of mankind begins with the primitive community. The appearance of new tools and new methods of labour led to the replacement of the human herd by the clan. Several clans, that is communities, or related individuals formed a tribe. Both the tribe and the clan were governed by elders who were chosen for their life experience and knowledge. The human herd and the clan were two consecutive stages in the development of primitive society.
The related members of the clan jointly owned their hunting grounds and the lands which they tilled. They lived and worked together, and consumed in common the products of their labour. Since they lived together in groups, they could provide themselves with food and keep fires burning.
The primitive human herd possesses the simplest tools: a hand-axe, a digging stock and a wooden club. Thousands of years passed before stone tools were replaced by those made of metal (bronze, iron). When people invented the harpoon, they took up fishing. The invention of bows and arrows helped to start cattle-breeding, and axes made it possible to go over to farming.
In primitive society there was no private property, therefore there were no classes and no exploitation — that is, appropriation by the rich of the fruits of other men's labour. Since there were no classes, there was no state system, that is no armed forces, no prisons, no courts, no overseers, and no government bodies.
7. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:
первобытная община, первобытное общество, человеческое стадо, род, племя, образовать племя, старейшины, орудия труда (металлические, бронзовые, железные, каменные), дубинка, лук, топор, стрела, мотыга, управлять, заниматься (охотой, рыбной ловлей, сельским хозяйством, разведением скота), выбирать, владеть, обеспечивать, изобретать, заменять, еда, огонь, совместно, сообща.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. What does the history of mankind begin with?
2. What led to the replacement of the human herd by the clan?
3. Who governed the clan?
4. What tools had the people?
5. What was their main occupation?
6. What was the structure of primitive society?
9. Прослушайте текст, озаглавьте его и ответьте на вопрос: What holiday do the people of North Carolina celebrate during the third week in September and why?
Indians were the first people to live in our country. That is why they are called Native Americans. Because they were here before the white settlers, it is important to remember and thank the Indians. Indians gave modern Americans many gifts and taught the settlers many new ways of doing things. Each year in North Carolina we celebrate Indian Heritage Week during the third week in September.
Heritage — наследие; gift – дap
10. Прослушайте текст, озаглавьте его и ответьте на вопросы:
1. Did the Indians live in caves?
2. What materials did they use for their dwellings?
3. Could one find any pieces of furniture there?
Indians in North Carolina did not live in teepees. Most of the Indians in North Carolina lived in small buildings made of wood and reeds. The frame of the house was made from wooden poles that were tied together. The walls and roof were made from reed mats or sheets of tree bark. Long tables or benches were usually the only furniture in their structures.
teepee = wigwam — дом, помещение
reed = rush - тростник, камыш
pole — кол, жердь, столб
mat — настил