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In the 1990s this idea of UN peacekeeping changed. Today’s peacekeepers often deploy to stop civil wars and missions are more complex and have more objectives. For example, UN troops disarm and demobilize soldiers, help refugees return to their homes and clear mines.

In today’s peacekeeping missions there are many more civilian peacekeepers, including police officers, engineers, medical personnel and drivers. These civilians build roads, schools and hospitals, and they supervise elections. An example of this kind of mission was the UN mission to Cambodia 1992-1993.


3.s Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1. Does the country participate in UN peacekeeping missions?

2. What are / were the names of these missions?

3. Do you know anyone who has any experience of UN peacekeeping missions?


4. Match the words with the definitions.


area of separation to disarm
ceasefire refugee
to demobilize truce


1. A permanent agreement to stop fighting. ______

2. Sides in a conflict don’t deploy soldiers here. ______

3. This person leaves his home because of war. ______

4. When a soldier becomes a civilian. ______

5. A temporary agreement to stop fighting. ______

6. When you take away someone’s weapons. ______


5. Read the text again and complete the chart.


    traditional peacekeeping peacekeeping today
when after a truce is signed    
  before a truce is signed    
who mostly military    
  military and civilian    
where international conflicts    
  civil wars    
what deploy in a buffer zone    
  help refugees go home    
  clear mines    
  supervise elections    
  monitor ceasefire agreements    


6. Work in pairs. What do peacekeepers need to know about a mission area before they deploy? Think about these things…


the country’s laws the religion
the country’s history the terrain
the people the language; English


7. Here are some rules for peacekeepers. Put the rules in the table.


Drink alcohol when you are on duty.

Respect the laws and religion of the country.

Respect the environment of the country.

React emotionally.

Talk to journalists without permission.

Be punctual.


always never





We use can to express physical and mental ability. We also use can when we express possibility or permission depending on circumstances.


Present Past Future
can I am able to He, she, it is able to We, you, they are able to could I, he, she, it was able to We, you, they were able to will be able to


E.g.Wecansee the lake from our bedroom window.

This helicopter can take off vertically, but it can’t fly very high.

Can you speak any foreign languages?


I can’tsleep. I haven’t been able to sleep recently.
Tom can come tomorrow. Tom might be able to come tomorrow.
Maria can speak French, Spanish and English. Applicants for the job must be able to speak two foreign languages.


8.ó ® Tell the group what you can do.


Ski, cook, drive a car, ride a bicycle, bake cakes, repair home appliances, sew uniform, interpret English into Ukrainian, interpret Ukrainian into English, box with somebody, make a fire, build a house, make salads, sell vegetables, grow lemons, ride a horse, skate, swim, dive, read English books, play the guitar, play football, play hockey, lift the weights, tame animals.


9. Change the sentences according to the example, using can’t.


Example: I don’t believe that he is fifty. – He can’t be fifty.

1. I don’t believe Mr Cameron is as old as that, he looks much younger.

2. I don’t believe you will postpone this meeting.

3. I don’t believe Larry trusts David. He is so cunning.

4. I don’t believe you are cheating the test.

5. I don’t believe Greg swims so well.

6. It’s impossible that she is a ballerina.

7. I don’t believe he is a sergeant.

8. I don’t think he is good at maths.

9. I don’t believe it is a joke.

10. It is impossible she drives a car so well’

11. I don’t believe it is Nancy’s fault.

12. I don’t believe you are so lazy.


10. Complete the sentences. Use could or was/were able to.


1. The plane was damaged but the pilot ______ land it safely.

2. Paganini ______ play the violin well at the age of three.

3. The ship was badly damaged but the captain ______ bring her safely to land.

4. When a child I ______ play the piano rather well.

5. The firemen ______ rescue all the people and the fire was put out.

6. Granny ______ speak five foreign languages when she was young.

7. Max was the brightest student and he ______ easily win the grant.

8. In my childhood I ______ dive in deep places.

9. Mr Foster ______ climb the hill and was saved by the rescue party.

10. We ______ cover another twenty miles and felt rather tired.

11. My mother ______ sew all her clothes when she was young.

12. After Jimmy had learned all new words he ______ read the text easily.

13. The sky was clear and we ______ see the stars in the sky.

14. It was difficult to find her but I _____ do it.

15. Finding himself in a strange place Robert ______ to find the road himself.

16. She knew spanish perfectly and ______ read the books without a dictionary.

17. When Frank was a little boy he ______ understand maths.

18. After Randolf had learned all the rules he ______ write a dictation without any mistakes.

19. I ______ skate and ski twenty years ago.

20. There were no broccoli at our greengrocer’s but I ______ find it in the next one.


11. Complete the sentences. Use can/can’t (cannot).


1. Fighters ______ attack enemy aircraft in the air but they ______ fly long distances.

2. A fighter-bomber is a fighter that ______ carry bombs and rockets.

3. The stealth bomber ______ fly 6,000 miles and radars ______ see it.

4. The US SPRUANCE-class destroyer ______ fight submarines, ships and aircraft.

5. Transport aircraft ______ move men and equipment long distances.


12. Complete the following sentences.


1. Our commander could …

2. The teacher can …

3. The best friend of mine was able to …

4. The sergeant can’t …


13.ó ® Finish the dialogue.


A: Hi, David! How are things going on?

B: I’m quite well, thank you. Jim, will you be able to help me with these papers?

A: Sure, I will. I can come tomorrow in the afternoon and we will start.

B: And can you take some new discs with you?

A: …

B: …


14. Choose the correct answer.


1. We ___ skate and ski and every winter we go to the mountains. a. could b. can c. are able
2. ___ you give me another cup of tea, please? a. could b. can c. will be able to
3. Hugh ___ his mind yesterday. That’s why he didn’t come. a. was able to change b. could have changed c. could change
4. We ___ leave for Crimea without our parent’s permission. a. weren’t able to b. couldn’t c. can’t
5. Mr Huston was so skilful that he ___ manage this deal himself. a. can b. was able to c. could
6. What ___ to change him so much? a. could have happened b. can happen c. could happen
7. Danny ___ really swim the best in his group. a. was able to b. could c. can
8. At last they found a taxi and ___ get to the station. a. could b. can c. were be able to
9. Our son ___ read 80 words a minute. He is a very smart boy. a. could b. can c. will be able to
10. You ___ this. It’s impossible to do. a. can’t promise b. couldn’t promise c. couldn’t have promised


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