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Part II

The external wall of a building provides weather 1) _____ and must be durable and fire resistant even if it is not built from load-bearing materials such as brick, block and stone. Corrugated iron sheet or timber 2) _____ is classified as non-load bearing.

Iron sheets must be supported on a 3) _____ with columns that transfer the building loads and wind pressure from the structure to the foundation. The columns transfer point loads to the foundation, unlike the evenly distributed 4) _____ transferred by the load-bearing wall to strip foundations.

Corrugated 5) _____ sheets have disadvantages as a building material for external walls for housing:

1. very poor thermal insulation;

2. very poor 6) _____ insulation;

3. they are difficult to decorate internally because they require an internal lining to attach fixtures and fittings;

4. the general appearance does not look as homely as conventional materials.

Timber cladding is the other material used for non-load-bearing external walls. The structural framework consists of a timber roof supported by timber columns on a 7) _____ foundation. Lightweight prefabricated timber wall frames are secured to the timber 8) _____.

Timber cladding usually consists of plywood, chipboard or hardboard panels. They are nailed or 9) _____ to the framework so that the heads of the nails or screws are below the surface of the board. The holes should be 10) _____ so that the surface of the board is even.

cladding loads filled columns resistance screwed framework iron sound raft


11 a) Match the parts of arch and words given:

rise; abutment; keystone; back/extrados; clear span, "Bay"; voussoir; intrados; impost.


b) Match the terms with their definitions:

1) abutment a) the horizontal distance between supporting pillars, columns, or walls, being the maximum possible distance clear of obstacles
2) back/ extrados b) the vertical distance between the springing line of the arch and the curve of the intrados
3) clear span c) the uppermost part of a column or pillar supporting an arch
4) impost d) the central stone or brick at the top of the arch, which may be wedge-shaped. It holds the arch together
5) intrados e) the point where the ends of the arch rest on the wall and support the weight of the structure above them
6) keystone f) a wedge-shaped or tapered stone used to construct an arch
7) rise g) the undersurface or soffit of the arch
8) voussoir h) the outer curve or surface of an arch or vault


12 a) Translate into Russian without a dictionary:

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