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The external wall of a building provides weather 1) _____ and must be durable and fire resistant even if it is not built from load-bearing materials such as brick, block and stone. Corrugated iron sheet or timber 2) _____ is classified as non-load bearing.
Iron sheets must be supported on a 3) _____ with columns that transfer the building loads and wind pressure from the structure to the foundation. The columns transfer point loads to the foundation, unlike the evenly distributed 4) _____ transferred by the load-bearing wall to strip foundations.
Corrugated 5) _____ sheets have disadvantages as a building material for external walls for housing:
1. very poor thermal insulation;
2. very poor 6) _____ insulation;
3. they are difficult to decorate internally because they require an internal lining to attach fixtures and fittings;
4. the general appearance does not look as homely as conventional materials.
Timber cladding is the other material used for non-load-bearing external walls. The structural framework consists of a timber roof supported by timber columns on a 7) _____ foundation. Lightweight prefabricated timber wall frames are secured to the timber 8) _____.
Timber cladding usually consists of plywood, chipboard or hardboard panels. They are nailed or 9) _____ to the framework so that the heads of the nails or screws are below the surface of the board. The holes should be 10) _____ so that the surface of the board is even.
11 a) Match the parts of arch and words given:
rise; abutment; keystone; back/extrados; clear span, "Bay"; voussoir; intrados; impost.
b) Match the terms with their definitions:
12 a) Translate into Russian without a dictionary: