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B) Explain the words in bold from the text and make up sentences of your own. Use English-English dictionaries to help you

7 Give the English equivalents to the following and use 5 of them in small situations:

покрытие (обшивка); удерживать тепло; утеплять; удовлетворять основным стандартам; без повреждений; обеспечивать доступ света и вентиляции; несущая/ опорная конструкция; дополнительное пространство; края крыши; два уклона образуют прямой (90°) угол; опираться на стену; влиять на строительное проектирование; плоская керамическая черепица; виды кровли; легко построить; легко содержать и обслуживать; стойкий против атмосферных влияний; водонепроницаемое покрытие; изоляция; несущая стена; обшивка досками; оцинкованный; стенная балка; заделанный в раствор; вокруг стропила.

8 Read and translate the text and make 5 questions to it:

What most home owners desire is a roof that is not too expensive, requires no maintenance, and lasts forever. But most roofs are replaced - or at least repaired - every ten years. By carefully choosing your home's roofing material, you can reduce the cost of replacement.

You can realize other environmental benefits from your roofing choices. If you select a light-colored surface or a material that does not absorb heat from the sun, you significantly reduce your home's cooling needs. When your attic stays cooler, your cooling bills go down.

There is a wide choice of materials used to roof a house, ranging from thatch – dried grass, to slate – pieces of stone. Modern products like plastic, fiberglass and concrete are available, and some innovative, energy-efficient homes are being roofed with sod. New products are being developed to overcome the shortcomings of older roofing materials, meet the demands of modern building techniques, and conform to increasingly stringent building codes.

Cost alone does not determine quality. But by carefully selecting the right material, making sure it's installed properly and performing modest maintenance occasionally, you can have a roof that functions properly for 20 to 50 years – or even longer.





9 Use the words below to complete the sentence:


Part I

Wood shakes offer a 1) _____ look with a lot of character. Because of variations like color, width, thickness, or cut of the wood, no two shake roofs will ever be the same.

Wood offers some 2) _____ benefits, too: it helps to insulate the attic, and it allows the house to breathe, circulating air through the small openings under the felt rows on which wooden 3) ______ are laid.

A wood shake roof, however demands proper 4) _____maintenance and repair, or it will not last as long as other products. Mold, rot, and insects can be a problem. The 5) _____ cost of a shake roof may be high, and old shakes can't be recycled.

Most wood shakes are unrated by fire 6) _____safety codes. Many use wipe or spray-on fire 7) _____ which offer less protection and are only effective for a few years. There are pressure-treated shakes, however, that are 8) _____ with fire retardant and meet national fire safety standards.

Installing wood shakes is more complicated than roofing with composite shingles, and the quality of finished roof depends on the experience of the contractor as well as the 9) _____ of the shakes you use. The best shakes come from the heartwood of large old 10) _____ trees. Care should be taken when selecting shakes as the quality varies greatly from different shake mills.


shingles, safety, cedar, natural, impregnated, retardants, energy, caliber, lifecycle, maintenance


10 Fill in the gaps with derivatives of the words in capitals:

POPULAR ROOFING MATERIALS Part II Composition shingles are a good choice for a clean look at an 1) _____ price. Higher-quality versions made from asphalt or fiberglass shingles offer a more durable option and may be available with recycled content. Composition shingles come in a large selection of types, brands and colors. Versatile, they adapt easily to different 2) _____. They are relatively easy to install, and in some applications can be nailed in place over an existing roof. They require low maintenance and can be walked on without 3) _____ the material. Most brands offer Class A fire protection. On the negative side, they can blow off in high winds. Material is easy to scar if hot. Does not have the 4) _____ look of tile or shake. Clay roofing tile is a good choice for homes with a southwestern, Italian, or 5) _____ Mission design, or even for homes with a modern, clean look. Tile lasts a long time – its 6) _____ lifespan is greater than the lifespan of the material on which the roofing rests. Tile won't rot or burn, and it can't be harmed by insects. It requires little maintenance, and comes in a variety of colors, types, styles and brands. The 7) _____ drawback to clay tile can be its weight. 8) _____on the material used to make it, tile can be very heavy – so heavy that extra roof support can be required. With some new materials, however, color is added only on the surface of the tile, and they can fade over time. Although most modern tile is kiln-fired into the tile making the color permanent. Tiles are fragile, so walking on them can break them. That makes it more difficult to accomplish 9) _____ like painting or cleaning rain gutters or fireplaces. Initial 10) _____ can be more complicated than other roofing materials. Finally, tile can cost more than other roofing materials. AFFORD APPLY DAMAGE DIMENSION SPAIN EXPECT BIG DEPEND MAINTAIN INSTALL

11 Fill in the gaps in the following passage with a suitable preposition given below:

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