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Exercise 1. Read and translate the text
Vehicle collisions unfortunately result in numerous variations of wreckage in which people may be trapped. The first impulse of witnesses or rescuers may be to bring and use the tools at hand to free the victims as quickly as possible. It should be remembered that any life-threatening conditions must be stabilized immediately if the extrication is going to serve its purpose. This means attention to breathing, heartbeat, bleeding, and shock prevention. For the first operations the rescuers should do everything in their power to get into the vehicle so that life-support activities can be initiated and so that the victim can be readied for extrication.
First it is necessary to check the victim for laboured breathing or the absence of breathing. If breathing difficulty is discovered, maintain an open airway and provide artificial respiration if possible. Then check rate, regularity and quality of pulse. The pulse rate is normally taken at the wrist and indicates heart action. If the pulse cannot be felt at the wrist, place your fingers over the carotid or femoral artery. If a victim is bleeding, control it by direct pressure or by tourniquet.
Much information about specific injuries can be received from the victim if he is conscious. Observe his state of awareness and calm him down if necessary. Sometimes the victim can be a great help with his own extrication, but unless he is moving around with a minimum of pain assume that the spine or neck is injured. If that is more likely the case, do not move anything until all fractures are immobilized with backboards and cervical collars.
Do not remove foreign objects such as a piece of metal which may be lodged in the body, or serious bleeding may result. Cut the impaled object free from the auto and apply bandages. Transport a victim to a hospital for removal, with the exception of an object impaled in the cheek. Such an object should be removed and bandages should be placed both inside and outside the cheek to control bleeding.
Although attention to life-threatening conditions is of utmost importance, first arriving firefighters must also attend to any present fire hazard while the victim is still trapped. Firefighters should immediately prepare a hose line in anticipation of a possible fire even if a fuel spill is not apparent, because undetected fuel vapours may have collected at a dangerous spot. Turning off the ignition and disconnecting the battery both lessen the danger of fire.
When it is determined that the victim is not in danger of dying immediately or that everything possible has been done to help the condition of the victim, extrication procedures may begin. The condition of the vehicle and the specific location of the victim will determine the best access route. If the doors open or can be made to open, that way usually would be the first choice. Otherwise, rescuers will have to extricate through the windows or through the body of the vehicle.