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Incentive to good conduct
TASK 9. Read the text below and write down a list of problems that prison inmates face:
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights declares that " all persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person". However, in reality all over the world, hundreds of thousands of people are being held in prisons that are: squalid, overcrowded, dilapidated, insanitary, inhumane» unjust, very expensive and ineffective in tackling crime. In many countries, conditions are so bad that prisoners die from malnutrition, diseases, attacks from other prisoners or prison staff, or suicide- Under extremely overcrowded and insanitary conditions, diseases such as tuberculosis and dysentery spread very rapidly, and without medical treatment they may easily be fatal.
At the same time there is a small number of people who present such a danger to the community or to themselves that they need to be detained. However, for most offences, imprisonment is not an effective penalty. Many countries which may have very high prison populations have very high crime rates. This shows that prison is probably not deterring many people from crime. Whilst in prison, the attitudes of minor offenders may harden as they mix with those convicted of more serious crimes. This often leads to minor offenders committing more serious crime after they are released from prison.
Large amounts of money are spent on locking people up, even when prison staff are poorly paid, buildings are not maintained and prisoners are treated inadequately.
In many countries, prison populations have been increasing substantially over recent years. Most prisoners are young, poor, urban men. Locking up this section of the general population for
Chapter V. Imprisonment. Retribution or Rehabilitation? 171
substantial periods has a destabilising effect on the whole of society in the longer term.
TASK 10. Find in the text above the English equtraUnw; far tlw following words and expressions:
1. высокий уровень преступности
2. лицо, совершившее малозначительное правонарушение
3. эффективная мера наказания
4. удержать от совершения преступления
5. посадить, 'упрятать1 в тюрьму
6. освободить из тюрьмы
TASK 11, Complete the text using the words from the box: restraint; release date; recidivism; rehabilitate; preventive
Criticism of the present prison system of punishment luis focused mainly on its rehabilitative and ________ functions-Critics point out that ____________ — the commission of another
crime after the offender has served a sentence for the first time — is high. Thus the system seems ineffective as a cure for, or a
_______________ upon, those factors in offenders which may lead to
criminal acts. Furthermore, because there is no way to predict the future behaviour of individuals, the length of sentence and the
________________ may have no relationship to the prison time necessary
to effect a cure in, ur _ __ _ _, an uffender. Many cihnimtlugisls insist that there is no adequate body to demonstrate that any punishment, capital punishment included, has a restraining effect on potential criminal behaviour.
Write down a list of measures necessary to improve the present prison system/Consider the information from the texts above.
Just English. Английский для юристов
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