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TASK L Read the following text and write down Russian equivalents for sentences given in bold type:

Among the 'pains of imprisonment' that both male and female inmates face are, in the first place, the deprivation of liberty and the loneliness and boredom of imprisonment Second, prisoners are deprived of all goods and services from the outside world. Stripped of possessions, they often equate their material lasses with personal inadequacy. The third deprivation for the majority is the absence of heterosexual relationships. Fourth, prisoners are subjected to vast body of institutional regulations designed to control every aspect of behaviour.

In part this control forms the deprivation of freedom that is the essence of imprisonment, and in part it is necessary adjunct as a means of maintaining security, controlling the introduction of weapons, contraband substances and preventing escapes,

Just English. Английский д.дя юрмстпи

Most prisons limit the number of visits that a prisoner may receive from his family or friends. Visits normally take place within the sight of an officer, and in ноте cases within his hearing. In many prisons, visits are conducted with the prisoner sitting on one side of the table and his visitor on the other, with a wire mesh partition between them; the visitor may be searched for contraband.

Prisoners may write and ruceive letters and may make telephone calls. Correspondence of prisoners is usually subject to censorship by the prison authorities, and prisoners may not write more than one fetter each week. Privileges include a personal radio, books, periodicals and newspapers. They also have an opportunity to watch television (in many prisons each prisoner has a TV-set), and to make purchases from the prison shop with money earned in prison.

Control of the prison is maintained by a «umber of disciplinary sanctions, which may include forfeiture of privileges, confinement within a punishment block or cell, or the loss of remission or good time (time deducted from the sentence as a reward for good behaviour). Typically, the prohibited offences include mutiny and violence to officers; escaping, or being absent from a place where the prisoner is required to be and possessing unauthorised articles.

TASK 2. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions and reproduce the context in which they were used:

« body of institutional regulations

e contraband substance

* forfeiture of privileges

& personal inadequacy

« to be stripped of possessions

9 to control the introduction of weapons

& to possess unauthorised articles

TASK 3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions;

1. лишение свободы

2. 6ym\ мятеж

Chapter V. Imprisonment: Retribution or Rehabilitation? Iti7

3. заключённый

4. обыск, досмотр

5- подлежать цензуре

TASK 4. Answer the following questions:

1. What deprivations do prisoners suffer?

2. What is the aim of controlling every aspect of prisoner's life?

3. What are the institutional regulations lor visits that prisoners may receive?

4. What rights do prisoners have?

5. What disciplinary sanctions are imposed to maintain security in prison?

TASK 5. Read the text and answer the following questions. Write doitm Russian equivalents for sentences given in bold type.

L What rights do prisoners enjoy in Europe and the United States?

2. What have you learned about Habeas Corpus and mandamus?

3, Why are the courts now willing to limit prisoners1 access to
the federal courts in the United States?

Prisoners' Rights

The idea that a prisonur has rights that may be protected by actions in the courts has been developed in Europe and the United States. In England, in the absence of a written constitution, prisoners resorting to the courts have relied on the general principles of administrative law, which require fair procedures by disciplinary bodies. Although many actions brought by prisoners have been unsuccessful, prison disciplinary procedures have been improved as a result of such litigation.

AMENDMENT S Excessive bail shall not bo required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted

In the U.S. actions brought under the provisions of the " U.S. Constitution {notably the Eighth and the Fourteenth amendments) establish that prisoners are entitled to the protection of the Constitution. Early U.S. court decisions ruled that prisoners had

forfeited all of the rights enjoyed by free citizens. Eventually, the courts recognised certain rights and legal remedies available to

168 Just English. Английский для юристов prisoners, whn may now file their own suits, have direct, access to the federal courts, and file writs of Habeas Corpus and mandamus. Under Habeas Corpus the prisoner may request release, transfer, or another remedy for some aspect of confinement Mandamus is r ____________...~.................................. ______ ~———-^ a command issue by a AMENDMENT 14 No State shall make or enforce any law which, shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive зпу person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws-

court directing a prison administrator to carry out a legal responsibility — to provide a sick prisoner with medical care, for example — or to restore to the prisoner rights that have been illegally denied, Prisoners have sought remedies for many problems, including relief from unreasonable searches, release from solitary confinement, and the procuring of withheld mail. Recent decisions have indicated, however, that the courts are now willing to limit legal writs by prisoners in deference to the security requirements of the prison.

TASK 6. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1. судебный процесс, судебное дело

2. предписание Хабеас Корпус

3. судебный приказ нижестоящему суду или должностному лицу

4. тюремное заключение

5. необоснованный обыск

6. предъявить иск; возбудить судебное дело (2)

7. восстанавливать в правах

8. добиваться судебной защиты

TASK 7, Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:

« to resort to the court ф to forfeit a right. e release from solitary confinement & ° procuring of withheld mail & prison security requirements

Chapter V. Imprisonment: Retribution or Rehabilitation? 139

TASK 8. Read the articles below and point out the opposite views on prison facilities:

Criticism of Jail TV

The UK Government has been accused of going " soft on crime'1 for considering a proposal to allow thousands of prisoners to have televisions in their cells.

The Home Office has asked the Prison Service to investigate the issue to try to defuse tensions in Britain's overcrowded jails. Prison Service officials said no decisions had been made and said it was weighing up the 'pros and cons' of the scheme.

Home Affairs spokesman, James Clappison, said: " We think prison conditions should be decent and austere and prisons should be a punishment. We think televisions

in cells are not consistent with that. We think it's soft on criminals.'1

The former Home Secretary, Michael Howard, said; " Televisions in cells could provide a calming influence and a powerful incentive to good conduct It could also be used for educational and communication purposes.'1

Deputy director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn, said: " It's a delicate matter and it shouldn't be used for prisoners to sit around to watch football. But it could be a useful tool for the Prison Service to give information to prisoners."

A Manicure for Jack the Ripper at the Killers3 Health Club

Some of Britain's most notorious killers and rapists are being offered the luxury of beauty therapy. They can enjoy facials, manicures and pedicures at Ashworth maximum security hospital's new Health and Beauty Center club. The 650 male and female patients can also enjoy a sauna, solarium and massage ares. at the mental hospital near Liverpool,

These inmates have avoided prison because the courts decided

they are either mentally ill or criminally insane.

Hospital authorities said that the facilities available to inmates " especially benefited those with low self-esteem or who found it difficult to relax."

Among the 'clients' of the Club is a knifeman who attacked 13 people and is now pleading for access to a fully equipped gym, and a sadistic rapist undergoing aromatherapy treatment,


Just English. Английский для юристов

___ _ — _^


Using the vocabulary and facts from the articles above discuss the following;

» Prison conditions should be decent and austere and prisons

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