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The word REHABILITATION has the following meanings in legal Russian:
1) восстановление в правах, реабилитация
rehabilitation of offender — реабилитация (восстановление в правах) преступника
2) реабилитация личности преступника (приспособление
rehabilitation — исправительная реабилитация, исправление преступника
Comment on the meanings of thin concept.
\____________________ .__________________________________________________________ 4
TASK 1. Match the foUowing English expressions with their Russian Equivalents:
Chapter V. Imprisonment; Betribution or Rehabilitation? 170
TASK 2. Read the text and translate the words and expressions given in bold type in writing ;
Preparation for Release
The Prison Services ш England and Wales and in Scotland have
a duty to prepare prisoners for release. Planning for safe release
begins at the start of an offender's sentence and ties in with all
training, education and work
experience provided It is directed
at equipping prisoners to (it back
into society and to cope with life
Full time education of 15
hours a week is compulsory for
young offenders below school
leaving age, For older offenders
it is voluntary. Some prisoners
study for public examinations,
including those of the Open University. Physical education is
voluntary for adult offenders, but compulsory for young
offenders. Practically all prisons have physical education facilities.
Inmates sometimes compete against teams in local community-Prison Industries aim to give wurk and experience which will
assist prisoners when released. At the same time it reduces the cost
of the prison system. The main industries are: clothing and textile
manufacture, engineering, woodwork, farming, etc,
Pre-release programmes enable selected long-term prisoners to spend their last six months before release in certain hostels attached to prisons, to help them re-adapt to society- Hostellers work in the outside community and return to the hostel each evening-Weekend leave allows hostellers to renew ties with their families. All this is designed to help the inmates make the transition from prison to community. In Northern Ireland prisoners serving fixed sentences may have short periods of leave near the end of their sentences and at Christmas. Life-sentence prisoners are given a nine-month pre-release programme, which includes employment outside the prison.
Attempts to aid the prisoner's return to society have led to the development of several innovative programmes. Furloughs
provide home visits of 48—72 hours for a prisoner nearing his release date; they are intended to aid in restoring family ties and in job
180 ^ust English. Английский для юристов
seeking. The work release programme permits inmates to test their work skills and earn money outside the institution for the major part of the day.
Professional social work support is given to offenders following their release to help adjust on their return to society. All young offenders and all adult offenders sentenced to 12 months imprisonment and over are supervised on release by the probation service — or, in the case of certain young offenders, by local authority social services departments. Aftercare programmes are designed to protect public safety by monitoring mmates reintegration into the community while making sure they receive needed treatment and services. Existing aftercare programmes are effective in reducing juvenile recidivism.
TASK 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the main trends in preparing prisoners for release?
2. What is the aim of pre-release programmes?
3. What innovative programmes are established to aid the prisoner's return to society?
4 "What are aftercare programmes designed for?
TASK 4, Read the article below and comment on the statements given in bold type:
Prisoners Prior to Release
In the past local prisons were used as pre-release centres, and indeed some of them still retain hostels for that purpose. Being near the court in which offenders are sentenced, they are also near the community into which short-term prisoners will be released. Therefore it would seem sensible that as many of these prisoners as possible should serve their sentences as near to that community as possible, and that long-term prisoners should be returned there for the last part of their sentence, so that the community, including the prisoner's family, can be included in work done with them prior to release, as envisaged in Lord WoolPs vision of community prisons, Bearing in mind how many prisoners come from inner-city areas, adjacent to large local prisons, it is believed that hostels are a development, or a return to former practice, that could be examined with advantage.
Chapter V. Imprisonment: Retribution or Rehabilitation?
TASK 5. Render the following passage into English paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type.
В современном мире широко дискутируется вопрос о правах заключенных. Причем речь идет не о базовых правах для этой категории людей, а о праве на вполне цивилизованную жизнь в условиях заключения. Например, в Великобритании при многих тюрьмах построены гимнастические залы, открыты библиотеки. Осуисдениые в английских тюрьмах занимаются физическим трудом, обучаются определенным видам ремесел, например, пошиву одежды, строительству зданий, столярному ремеслу, работе в прачечной, сельскохозяйственному труду, садоводству.
Осужденные в Великобритании могут повысить свой образовательный уровень. Так, для несовершеннолетних правонарушителей, еще не окончивших школу, 15 часов занятий в неделю обязательны. Совершеннолетние преступники могут получать образование на добровольной основе. Заключенным даже дается возможность подготовиться к экзаменам в Открытый Университет (заочная система образования).
Цель этих про^ грамм — помочь осужденному найти работу, когда он будет отпущен на свободу. Подобное отношение к че-v ловеку, преступившему закон, очень важно в свете реабилитации личности преступника (что означает приспособление его к условиям жизни в обществе среди законопослушных граждан). Одна из причин существования рецидивизма заключается в том, что, выйдя на свободу, человек сташсивается с враждебным отношением общества. Приобретение навыков, которые пригодятся человеку, отбывшему тюремное заключение» при выходе на свободу снижает вероятность того, что оы снова встанет на преступный путь.
}Q2 Just English. Английский для юристов
TASK в. Read the ex-convicf$ letter. What message does he want to get across?
An Ex-Prisoner's Testimony
My reason Cor testifying publicly about areas of my life where the scars have still not healed is that I would like to help in the search for more satisfactory and more caring responses to the problems of delinquency.
Г come from what fa euphemistically known as a working-class background, in other words from the underclass. I was one of seven children, and we were so poor that none of us was able to stay on at school beyond the minimum leaving age. In January 1993 I was arrested, with some of my childhood buddies, for a hold-up committed with a dummy weapon.
Prison came as a brutal shock. The appalling physical conditions made me feel I had stepped back into an age of barbarity. The grim universe within the prison walls not only seemed out of touch with the outside world but to be embedded in a punitive mentality bordering on bestiality I felt utterly isolated from the prison officers and my fellow inmates. I also felt cut off from myself, and this was not the least of the dangers I was up against. I soon learned what life in the jungle Is all about. If you want to survive you can't afford to trust another living soul
You stai't by withdrawing into a shell. Then, if you don't crack up, you get tougher, carefully concealing your slightest weaknesses, You have to think twice about every move you make. A misplaced word or glance could lead to all sorts of trouble. The pressure was so intense that whatever vague feelings of remorse I might have had gave way to a strong sense of injustice. When you're always on your guard you suffer physical and psychological harm that is impossible to measure, After serving four-and-a-half years of a six-year sentence, I came out broken and bent on revenge.
Reintegration is a term that should be added to the list of empty, meaningless words. Mysteriously, everyone I contacted with a view to a job shied away as if they had been tipped off about me. I wondered for a long time whether life was worth living but loving support from my relatives helped me get back on my feet
Whatever some people may think, it's never too late to start again But what a waste! Looking back, I can't help thinking it could have been avoided.
Chapter V. Imprisonment: Retribution or Rehabilitating? 180
TASK?. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:
a dummy weapon
• the underclass
$ to be bent on revenge
« to be on one's guard
9 to be out of touch with smb./smth.
© to commit a hold-up
& to contact smb- with a view to a job
о to get tough
* to shy away from smb.
TASK 8. Answer the following questions:
1. What prompted the young man's slide into a life of crime?
2. Why did prison come as a brutal shock?
3. Why did the young man feel cut off from himself in prison7
4. How did the employers know that the man was an ex-convict?
TASK 9. Read the letter and answer the question: Would you help the ex-convict and why?
TheInmate's LetterDear NEEDED Friend,
My name is Leonard Singleton. Very soon I will be released from prison. I have no family support, no friends, no money, and no home to return to. At the time of my release, I will be given $25 and a bus ticket and then released into the streets, homeless and alone. I was previously released under the same conditions, which resulted in my resorting to crime to provide housing, clothing, and food for myself.
Just as you are sick and tired of the crime, the criminals and being victimized, please believe me, SO AM L Г am desperately tired of robbing, stealing and victimizing people. I never wanted to be a criminal. I made a very serious mistake by getting involved with the wrong crowd, doing the wrong things. I lost my family, freedom, and integrity. I am ashamed of myself for disgracing, embarrassing, and hurting my family and innocent victims.
My pain and shame for the crimes I formerly committed, goes beyond remorse and a plea for forgiveness. I cannot change the past, but I do ask for forgiveness and an opportunity to live a better life.
7 — 6660
184 Just English. Английский для юристпв
I am asking you to help me with a fresh, new start I need your help for construction tools and equipment, housing, clothing, Food, utilities, household items, etc With this help, I can put a roof over my head. I can focus on and acquire employment, and begin building a decent life. PLEASE HELP MR PLEASE. 1 have no one else to turn to.
И you try to understand my situation and need for your help, please address a donation, check, or money order.
Liberty Savings Bank 330 West National Road Englewood, Ohio 45322-1496
Idon't know what else to write to persuade you to help me. I do pray, God will touch your heart, to let you know I am sincere and worthy of your generous support.
Thank you for reading my message, and thank you for giving me a second chance,
Sincerely, Leonard Singleton
TASK 10, Study the letters of two convicts together (Task 6 and Task Q). Compare the conclusions they arrived at on release. How did the community react to their attempts io fit back into society?