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CHANGE OF MEANING. I.What are the three aspects of semantic change?


I.What are the three aspects of semantic change?


II.1) What causes the development of new meaning? Give examples.

2) State the cause of the semantic change:

microwave, n., mobile, n., consumer durables, portable, n.


III.Could you explain/define the following terms?

Transference, figurative extension, metaphor, metonymy, broadening/generalization, narrowing/specialization, pejoration/degeneration of meaning, melioration/elevation of meaning.


IV.Metaphor or metonymy? Explain your answer.

1. the foot of the mountain - the foot of the bed

the legs of the trousers - the legs of a chair

the arms of an arm-chair - the arms of a coat

the hour hand - factory hands

in the heart of English countryside - to have a kind heart

heads of government - the head of a nail

eyes of a potato - a good eye for detail

2. a Romeo, a diesel, a Winchester, a limerick, a Balaclava, jersey, Jekyll and Hyde, a Monte Christo, Smith and Wesson, mackintosh


V.Find metaphors and say what they are based on.

1. The book throws a great deal of light on the history of the period.

2. Try to keep cool even if he argues with you.

3. Police tried to control the flow of the fans as they left the concert.

4. The city at night is a jungle.

VI.Can you identify metonymy in the following sentences? State the type of logical associations it is based on.

1. After the death of his wife he took to the bottle.

2. She’s written a number of things for the stage.

3. The whole stadium rose to cheer/greet the team.

4. Some important papers are missing from the file.


VII.Analyze the semantic change.

1. pigeon "young bird" - "young dove" - "all dove-like birds";

2. brand "branding-iron" - "permanent mark deliberately made by hot iron" - "trade mark";

3. fowl "bird" - "farmyard bird, for ex. a chicken or a duck";

4. crafty "strong" - "wily";

5. cunning "knowledgeable" - "sly";

6. pretty "capricious" - "clever" - "good-looking";

7. gossip "godfather or godmother" - "a close friend" - "a woman friend invited to be present at a birth" - "someone who enjoys talking about other people";

8. digital "using digits to represent quantities" - "of computers and computerization".


VIII.When JamesII first saw St. Paul’s Cathedral he called it amusing, awful and artificial.

What did he mean? Can you analyze the semantic change the words have undergone since that time?


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