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The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve when needed for processing. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk, floppy disk and CD-ROM.
Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data.
Floppy disk (diskette) - thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25" is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size flexibility and small capacity. 3.5" disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.
CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drives can provide nowadays. Output hardware
The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is output in eitherhardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.
Monitor isa component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc.
Printer isa computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.
Modem is an example ofcommunication hardware — an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.
Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap.
amount — количество
capacity — вместительность
circuitry — эл. цепи
CPU, microprocessor — микропроцессор
hard disk — жесткий диск, «винчестер»
input hardware — устройства ввода данных
keyboard — клавиатура
lap — колени
modem — модем
mouse — устройство для перемещения объектов на экране, «мышь»
output hardware — выходные устройства отображения информации
printer — принтер
processing hardware — устройства обработки данных
RAM — ОЗУ (оперативное запоминающее устройство)
ROM — ПЗУ (постоянное запоминающее устройство)
CD-ROM — накопитель на компакт-дисках (CD)
scanner — сканер
sensitive — чувствительный
sophisticated — сложный
storagehardware — устройства хранения данных
temporarily — временно
temporary — временный
the purpose — цель
tier — ярус
to affect — влиять
to connect — соединять
to convert — преобразовывать
to direct — управлять
to execute — выполнять
to interpret — переводить
to provide — обеспечивать
to reach — достигать
to retrieve — извлекать
to roll — катать, перекатывать
volatile — летучий, нестойкий, временный
1. What is the Webster's dictionary definition of the hardware?
2. What groups of hardware could be defined?
3. What is input hardware? What are the examples of input hardware?
4. What is mouse designed for? What is a light pen?
5. What is processing hardware? What are the basic types of memory used in a PC?
6. Can a PC-user change the ROM? Who records the information in ROM?
7. What is storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for? Can a user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of storage hardware can contain more information: CD-ROM, RAM or ROM?
8. What is modem used for? Can PC-user communicate with other people without a modem?
Exercise 8.6. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1) Computer is an electronic device therefore hardware is a system of electronic devices.
2) The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing.
3) Scanner is used to input graphics only.
4) The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer.
5) CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on paper.
6) User is unable to change the contents of ROM.
7) 5.25" floppy disks are used more often because they are flexible and have more capacity than 3.5" disks.
5) Printer is a processing hardware because its purpose is to show the information produced by the system.
6) Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.
7) The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve them when needed for processing.
Exercise8.7. Give definitions to the following using the vocabulary
8) Hard disk
Exercise 8.8. Which of the following is Hardware:
8) cursor or the pointer
Exercise 8.9. Match the following:
a) nonvolatile, non-modifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.
b) the part of a television or computer on which a picture is formed or information is displayed.
c) rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer programs and relatively large amounts of data.
d) an electronic device that makes possible he transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.
e) a set of keys, usually arranged in tiers, for operating a typewriter, typesetting machine, computer terminal, or the like.
f) volatile computer memory, used for creating, loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data; main memory.
g) central processing unit: the key component of a computer system, containing the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute program instructions.
h) a palm-sized device equipped with one or more buttons, used to point at and select items on a computer display screen and for controlling the cursor by means of analogous movement on a nearby surface.
i) a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and program.
Questions for group discussion:
1) Without what parts computer is unable to work?
2) What is the most expensive part of the hardware?
3) What other hardware devices do you know? What are they for? Do you know how to use them?
Text C: "TYPES OF SOFTWARE»
A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software — programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.
Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.
Programs usually fall in one of two categories: systemsoftware and applications software.
System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the systems programs is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software can be brought in.
System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver program which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you «teach» your mainboard to «understand» the newly attached part.
Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one program to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the
marketing point of view.
Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software.Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.
aid — помощь
to attach — присоединять
control — управление
developer — разработчик
equipment — оборудование
general-purpose — общего назначения
internal — внутренний
mainboard — материнская плата
memory capacity — вместимость памяти
peripheral — периферийный
regard — отношение
regardless — несмотря на, безотносительно,
security — безопасность
specific — конкретный, определенный
to boot — загружать
to check — проверять
to complete — совершать, завершать
to conduct — проводить
to develop — развивать, проявлять
to direct — управлять, руководить
to handle — управлять, обращаться с
to install — устанавливать, встраивать, инсталлировать
to provide with — обеспечивать чем-либо
to require — требовать
to secure — обеспечивать безопасность
to transfer — переводить, переносить
Web-browser — «браузер» (программа, позволяющая пользователю искать и считывать информацию с глобальной электронной сети Internet)