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B. The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense




This tense-form is used to denote a near-future action which arises out of arrangement or plan and is sure to happen. It is frequently associated with the verbs of movement (go, come, arrive, fly, move, etc), but other groups of verbs are used as well.

I m leaving tomorrow.

My dad is flying to Paris tonight.

Wednesday won't do, I'm ajraid I'm attending a conference.

She says she's baby-sitting tonight.

Note the use of the Continuous forms of the verbs 'see, hear' in the meaning of 'meet', 'learn'т colloquial English. I'm seeing the dentist tomorrow.

C. The Construction «to he going + Infinitive»

This is used to denote:

1. Apian or personal intention.

Bill is going to sell his car.

What are you going to do at Christmas?

2. To predict future events, based on concrete evidence.

Look at the clouds! Isn't it going to rain?

He is definitely going to get better (there are signs

of recovery).

D. The Simple Present Tense

This tense is used instead of the Present Continuous to express a definite future arrangement in a more formal language. Like in the case with the Present Continuous, the future meaning of the Present Simple must be indicated by a special adverbial modifier or the context, e.g.

The train leaves at 6 a.m. tomorrow.

The film starts at 2 p.m.

E. The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense

FORMATION

The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense is formed with shall/will be + the Present Participle.

Table 11

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I we shall       be working   I we shall not     be working   shall   I we   be working9  
you he she it you they     will   you he she it you they     will not     will     you he she it you they

Contractions

'11 = will (shall) shan't = shall not won't = will not

In modern English will is preferable for all persons (see the Note for the Future Simple).

USAGE

The Future Continuous tense denotes:

1. An action which will be going on at a definite moment

in the future. Indicated either by an adverbial phrase (at 3 p.m., at this time tomorrow, etc) or by another future action (usually in the Present Simple or Present Continuous in clauses of time).

I'll be working in the library at 10 tomorrow.

This time next week we 'II be crossing the Pacific

Ocean.

The children will be doing their homework when

I come back from work.

I'll be buttering the bread while you are slicing the tomatoes.

You 'II recognize her easily when you see her. She'll be wearing a yellow hat.

2. An action which will be going on during a certain period of time in the future.

From 8 till 12 I'll be busy at university. I'll behaving classes at this time.

Will you be using your bike this evening?

Note that in Indirect Speech when the verb in the principal clause is in the Past tense-form the Future Continuous tense is replaced by the Future Continuous in the Past.

She said the children would he sleeping when she

arrived home

F. The Future Perfect Tense

FORMATION

The Future Perfect Tense is formed by means of the Future Simple of the auxiliary verb to have and the Past Participle

of the main verb.

Table 12

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I we shall     have gone by 4 o'clock   I we shall not     have gone by 4 o'clock   shall   I we   have gone by 4 o'clock'7  
he she it you they will     he she it you they will not     will     he she it you they

USAGE

The Future Perfect Tense denotes an action viewed as comp­leted before a definite future moment indicated by an adverbial with the preposition 'by' or by another future action. It may also denote a future action covering a certain period of time up to or including the given future moment (with stative verbs, i. e. verbs not used in the Continuous aspect).

/ think she'll have finished the essay by Monday.

By the time you get back Mike will have left.

He'll have been in this business for five years by

next summer.

G. The Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive)


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