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Useful Language

In comparison to ballasted track, the advantages of slab track (or ballastless track) are in general reduction of maintenance and a higher stability of the track:


- Maintenance costs amount to 20-30% of the maintenance costs of ballasted track. (Maintenance work like tamping, ballast cleaning and track lining is unnecessary);

- Increased service life;

- Near maximum availability and hardly any hindrance to residents due to scarce nightly maintenance works;

- No drag forces at ballast with the passing of high-speed trains;

- The unconditional use of electro-magnetic wheel brakes;

- The excess of superelevation and cant deficiency of the track with mixed use of freight-and-passenger trains does not cause altering of the track position;

- Simple corrections up to 26 mm in vertical position and 5 mm in horizontal position are possible to counteract small deformations;

- Reduced structure height and weight.


Other reasons for applying slab track can be:


- The lack of suitable ballast material;

- Track accessibility to road vehicles;

- The abatement of noise and, in particular, vibration nuisance;

- Preventing the release of dust from the ballast bed into the environment.


In comparison to ballasted track, the disadvantages of slab track are in general:


- Higher construction costs;

- Higher airborne noise reflection;

- Large alterations in track position and superelevation can only be made possible by substantial amounts of work;

- In case of derailment, repair works will take much more time and effort;

- Transitions between ballasted track and slab track require attention.

Unit 10 New Ideas

Useful Language

Word Definition Translation Transcription
affordable That does not cost too much money, so that people can afford to do or buy it допустимый; по средствам ə fɔː.də.bl
(to be) aware of to have knowledge of experience of a particular thing знать, осознавать ə'weər
backwards and forwards first in one direction and then in the opposite one в одном, а потом другом направлении bжk.wədz ə nd fɔː.wədz
carpooling The practice of travelling to work together in one car and sharing the cost between several people   kɑ pul
carbon a simple chemical substance, which is an important part of substances such as coal and oil, as well as being contained in all plants and animals углерод kɑ.bən
carbon emission Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases that sent out into the air, harming the environment выделение углерода kɑ.bən ɪˈmɪʃ.ən
carbon footprint Someone's carbon footprint is a measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide that their activities produce. углеродный след kɑ.bən fʊt.prɪnt
(to)carry out to do or complete something осуществлять; приводить в исполнение kжr.i aʊt
catering the food, etc., provided at a function by a caterer кейтеринг, ресторанное обслуживание keɪ.tərɪŋ
clarification an explanation or more details which makes something clear or easier to understand просветление, прояснение klжr.ɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən
climate change the change in the world’s weather that is believed to be caused by human activity изменение климата klaɪ.mət tʃeɪndʒ
(to)come up with to suggest or think of an idea or plan придумывать, предлагать, находить kʌm ʌp wɪр
(to)commission to officially ask someone to write, make or carry out something for you делать заказ kə mɪʃ.ən
component a part which combines with other parts to form something bigger компонент; составная часть kəm pəʊ.nənt
conclusion the opinion you have after considering all the information about something умозаключение, вывод kən klu.ʒən
convenient useful, easy or quick to do; not causing problems удобный, подходящий; пригодный kən vi.ni.ənt
(to) create to make something happen or exist производить; создавать krieɪt
currently of the present time текущий, данный kʌr.ənt
damage to harm or spoil something вред, повреждение dжm.ɪdʒ
disposal the act of getting rid of something, especially by throwing it away ликвидация; устранение dɪˈspəʊ.zəl
(to)dispose to throw out or away ликвидировать, избавляться dɪˈspəʊ.zəl
distribution the process of giving things out to several people, or spreading or supplying something распределение, распространение dɪs.trɪˈbju.ʃən
ebilling sending people bills by email rather than by post asking them to pay money owed отправка счетов по электронной почте ɪ bɪl.ɪŋ
ecological connected with or concerned about the environment экологический i.kəlɒdʒ.ɪ.kəl
effective producing a successful result действенный, результативный, эффективный ɪˈfek.tɪv
electronic waste discarded electrical or electronic devices электронные отходы ɪˌlektrɒn.ɪk weɪst
emission when gas, heat, light, etc. is sent out выделение, распространение ɪˈmɪʃ.ən
(to)enable to make someone able to do something, or to make something possible давать возможность, право ɪˈneɪ.bl 
environment the air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live окружающая среда ɪn vaɪə .rən .mənt
environmentally friendly not harmful to the environment экологически приемлемый, не вредящий экологии ɪn vaɪə .rən .men.təlɪ frendli
(to) gain to get something that is useful, that gives you an advantage извлекать пользу, выгоду geɪn
(to)get rid of to relieve or free oneself of (something or someone unpleasant or undesirable) избавляться get rɪd əv
global warming an increase in the average temperature worldwide believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect глобальное потепление gləʊ.bəl wɔː.mɪŋ
(to)go green to start doing smth to protect nature and the environment стать защитником окружающей среды gəʊ grin
green relating to the protection of the environment принадлежащий движению защитников окружающей среды Grin
green policy A set of ideas relating to the protection of the environment политика, обеспечивающая защиту окружающей среды grin pɒl.ə.si
greenhouse effect an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to be the cause of a gradual warming of the surface of the Earth парниковый эффект Grin.haʊs gжs ɪˈfekt
greenhouse gases a gas which causes the greenhouse effect, especially carbon dioxide парниковые газы grin.haʊs gжs
heating the system that keeps a building warm отопление Hi.tɪŋ
hybrid using a mixture of two or more types of fuel, for example a petrol engine and an electric motor, so that less harm is caused to the environment гибрид, что-л. составленное из разнородных элементов haɪ.brɪd
hybrid car a vehicle with an engine that uses both petrol and another type of energy, usually electricity легковой автомобиль с гибридным приводом haɪ.brɪd kɑːr
incentive something that encourages you to do something побуждение, стимул ɪn sen.tɪv
impact a powerful effect that something, especially something new, has on a situation or person сильное воздействие; влияние ɪm.pжkt
initiative a new plan for dealing with a particular problem or for achieving a particular purpose инициатива, первый шаг ɪˈnɪʃ.ə.tɪv
innovative using new methods or ideas новаторский, передовой ɪn.ə.və.tɪv
insulated protected with a material that prevents heat, sound, electricity, etc. from passing through изолированный ɪn.sjʊ.leɪtɪd
(to) introduce idea to put some ideas into use внедрять, привносить (идеи) ɪn.trədjus
introduction when something is put into use or brought to a place for the first time введение ɪn.trə dʌk.ʃən
(to)judge to form, give or have as an opinion, or to decide about something or someone, especially after thinking carefully оценивать, судить dʒʌdʒ
(to)make an effort To try to do smth сделать усилие, попытаться meɪk ən ef.ət
(to)maintain to keep in existence поддерживать, сохранять meɪn teɪn
(to)move on to start a new activity идти дальше; переходить к (чему-л. новому) mu v ɒn
moveable able to be moved передвижной, переносный, разборный mu.və.bl ̩
neutral having features or characteristics that are not easily noticed нейтральный Nju.trəl
original new and interesting in a way that is different from anything else оригинальный, новый ə rɪdʒ.ɪ.nəl
(to)outsource To arrange for someone outside a company to do work or provide goods for that company привлекать (внешние ресурсы, специалистов, услуги) для выполнения собственных, внутренних задач компании aʊt.sɔːs
particular special, or this and not any other особенный, специфический pə tɪk.jʊ.lər
planet an extremely large round mass of rock and metal, such as Earth, which moves in a circular path around the Sun Земля, земной шар plжn.ɪt
popular liked, enjoyed or supported by many people популярный, доходчивый pɒp.jʊ.lər
postage the cost of sending a package, letter, etc by post почтовая оплата, почтовые расходы pəʊ.stɪdʒ
presentation a talk giving information about something презентация prez.ən teɪ.ʃən
(to) process to prepare, change or treat raw materials as a part of an industrial operation подвергать (технологическому) процессу; обрабатывать; перерабатывать prəʊ.ses
recycling the practice of treating materials that have already been used so that they can be used again переработка отходов (для повторного использования) ri saɪ.klɪŋ
(to)reduce to make something smaller in size, amount, degree, importance, etc понижать, сокращать, уменьшать rɪˈdjus
reduction when you make or when something becomes smaller in size, amount, degree, importance, etc понижение, сокращение rɪˈdʌk.ʃən
(to)refer to direct the attention of (someone) for information, facts, etc направлять; отсылать rɪˈ fɜ
(to)register to put information, especially your name, into an official list or record регистрировать redʒ.ɪ.stər
regulation an official rule or the act of controlling регулирование; упорядочение reg.jʊˈleɪ.ʃən
reinsurance insurance bought by an insurance company to protect itself against large demands from its customers перестрахование, вторичная страховка ri ɪn ʃɔːrəns
relatively quite good/bad/etc. in comparison with other similar things or with what you expect относительно, сравнительно rel.ə.tɪv.li
renewable that is replaced naturally or controlled carefully and can therefore be used without the risk of finishing it all восстановимый, возобновляемый rɪˈnju .ə.bl ̩
reputation the opinion that people in general have about someone or something репутация rep.jʊˈteɪ.ʃən
(to) re-use to use something again снова использовать ri juz
rubbish things that you throw away because you no longer want or need them мусор, хлам; отбросы; rʌb.ɪʃ
(to)save energy to prevent the power from something such as electricity or oil being wasted экономить энергию seɪv en.ə.dʒi
screen a flat surface in a cinema, on a television or a computer system on which pictures or words are shown экран skrin
solar panel a device that changes energy from the sun into electricity солнечная батарея səʊ.lər pжn.əl
(to)switch to change suddenly or completely, especially from one thing to another, or to exchange by replacing one person or thing with another переключаться, менять направление Swɪtʃ
(to)take care to look after someone or something заботиться teɪk keər
(to)take measures To do smth in order to improve or deal with a situation принимать меры teɪk meʒ.ərz
theme the main subject of a talk, book, film, etc. тема иim
(to)turn off to cause (something) to cease operating by turning a knob, pushing a button выключать tɜːn.ɒf
underdeveloped (especially of a country) without modern industry or modern services that provide transport, health care, etc недоразвитый; слаборазвитый ʌn.də.dɪˈvel.əpt
unusual different from what is usual or normal необыкновенный ʌnju.ʒu.əl
useful that can help you to do or achieve what you want полезный, пригодный jus.fəl
(good)value for money a good price for something то, что стоит свою цену vжl.ju fər mʌn.i
vending machine a machine from which you can buy snacks, drink, etc. by putting coins into it торговый автомат ven.dɪŋ mə ʃin
waste no longer needed for a particular process and therefore thrown away отходы (производства) weɪst
waste paper paper discarded after use макулатура, использованная бумага weɪst peɪ.pər
winter garden garden of evergreen plants and plants that flower in winter зимний сад wɪn.tər gɑː.dən
within inside or not further than an area or period of time в пределах, в рамках wɪˈрɪn
workplace a building or room where people perform their jobs, or these places generally рабочее место wɜːk.pleɪs


I. Match the words (1-10) with their definitions (a-j):

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