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UNIT TWO




Task I. Listen to the recorded terms. Write them down. Practise their pronunciation and learn their meanings.


Accent

Accentuation

Accidental Rise

Adjective

Adverb

Adverbial modifier group

Apposition

Apostrophe

Article (definite, indefinite)

Assimilation (regressive, progressive, reciprocal (double); partial, intermediate and complete)

Author’s words

Auxiliary verbs

Body movements (body language)

Boundary

Brackets

Colon

Comma

Complex tones

Compound words

Conjunction (compound, composite, simple, coordinating, subordinating)

Contour

Curve (downward, upward)

Dash

Direct address

Dot

Emphasis

Ending (the end of a word, sentence)

Enumeration

Exclamation mark

Facial expression

Full stop

Full stress

Function

Gestures

Handwriting (cursive, italic)

Hyphen

Implicatory

Inverted commas

Interval

Intonation pattern

Italics

Junction

Juncture

Loudness

Manner of noise production

Meaning

Mimics

Modal verbs

Modification

Notional verb

Noun

Numeral (cardinal, ordinal)

Paragraph

Parenthesis

Partial stress

Pause (silent: long and short, perceptive and voiced or filled)

Pausation

Phonetic paragraph

Placement of stress within the word

Plural

Polysyllabic

Predicate group

Prefix

Preposition

Prominence

Pronoun (demonstrative, indefi­nite, interrogative, personal, possessive, reflective, relative)

Question mark

Range

Rate (speed) of tone changes

Reduction (quantitative, qualitative and complete or zero)

Reduced vowel

Rhythm

Rhythmic group

Rhythmic structure

Root of the word

Scale (Regular/Broken; Descending/Ascending; Stepping, Sliding, Scandent, Level)

Semicolon

Sentence communicative type (declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory)

Singular

Slanting brackets

Slanting line

Special Rise

Stress (Word Stress, Utterance Stress)

Stress-timed language

Subject group

Suffix

Tempo (rapid (accelerated), moderate, slow (decelerated)

Three-syllable words

Tonogram (tonogramme)

Tune (simple, compound)

Two-syllable words

Verb

Utterance (statements, questions, imperatives, exclamations)

Utterance stress (full non-nuclear, partial, weak and nuclear)

Word Order

Word Stress (primary, secondary, strong, weak or unstressed)


Task 2.Listen to thefollowing words and word combinations; write them in the right columns.

Example:

Phonetic terms Grammar terms Punctuation marks
three-syllable words sentence comma

Task 3.Listen tothe recorded words and word combinations (Task 1); transcribe the words containing the vowels: /U /, /u:/, /V/, /A:/, /Q/, /@U/.

Task 4.Write down the words containing the vowels mentioned in Task 3 (10 words for each vowel) and the following consonants: /f, v, l, j, r, N/. Use the material you worked on at your practical classes.

Task 5. Listen to therecorded words and word combinations (Task 1); write in the right columns the words, which have the following vowels in stressed syllables:

Example:

/i:/ /I/ /e/
meaning interval direct

 

Task 6. Write down the recorded words and word combinations in Task 1; concentrate on the unstressed syllables. Analyse the qualitative changes in the production of vowels in them; underline the letters or their combinations, if any, representing the schwa phoneme in speech; give the rules of the commonest way of spelling this vowel; record the words to exemplify different allophones of this phoneme.

Task 7. Practise reading the words, word combinations and phrases given below paying attention to the pronunciation of plosives. Remember the rule: when two or more plosives follow one another, only the last one is really “exploded” audibly, and the regular speech-flow is held back to allow the preceding plosives to be formed; if a plosive is followed by a nasal (/m/ or /n/) or lateral sonorant (/l/) it is known as nasally or laterally exploded (correspondingly); when a plosive is followed by a fricative it has incomplete or fricative plosion. After reading, group the words according to the manner of noise production of plosives in them. Record the exercise.

1) Hope to, hoped to, dust bin, Saint Paul’s, black cat, lamp-post, big dog, held back, help me, good night, little kitten, don’t talk, hot toast, write down, put that down, not now, look sharp, a locked door, let me, hard times, an old friend, a bad thing, take care, held deep, doomed to failure, a top hat, a fast car, Mark can’t park, buttered buns, doesn’t love, mashed potatoes.

 


2) Pleased to meet you.

Glad to see you.

Have you got the suitcase?

I’ve lost the form they gave me.

It’s not there.

Last name?

What shall I call you?

Do your family or friends call you by a nickname?

An optimist always expects the best to happen.

Can we have the next contestant, please?


Task 8. Listen to Task 1. Find pairs of sounds which are classed as plosives; comment on the specificity of the voiceless plosives’ production in English; compare the pronunciation of the corresponding plosives in your native language; record the examples illustrating the differences in the pronunciation of English and Ukrainian plosives.

Task 9. Practise saying the recorded words (Task 1), paying particular attention to the length of the stressed vowels in definite phonetic contexts; record the examples demonstrating positional allophones of vowels in English.

Task 10. Give as many examples as possible from the list of recorded words and word combinations (Task 1) in which the stressed vowels are pronounced as they are called in the alphabet, transcribe those, which contain the vowels and consonants you have learnt.

Task 11.Listen tothe following utterances. They are exactly the same, except a different word is stressed in each utterance. Underline the most prominent word in them. Lay stress-and-tone marks in the utterances you hear. Give tonograms.

Do you know the shortest™way?

Do you know the ™shortest way?

Do you ™knowthe shortest way?

Do ™youknow the shortest way?

 

Can you break an apple in ™two?

Can you break an ™apple in two?

Can you ™break an apple in two?

Can ™youbreak an apple in two?

 

Can you buy me a second ™copy?

Can you buy me a ™second copy?

Can you buy ™me a second copy?

Can you ™buyme a second copy?

Can ™you buy me a second copy?

Task 12.Listen to the following dialogues. Concentrate on the intonation of yes/no questions. Write them down. Lay stresses and tone marks. Practise reading the dialogues. Formulate the rule of yes/no questions grammatical structure and their intonational organisation. Do it in writing.

Thompson p.22-31.


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