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c) to join the rest
e) to put forward
g) to give effect
h) to endorse
j) to pass
k) according to the provisions of
TASK IV.Make up new collocations with the words in bold type; identify the adjectives closest in the meaning to the adjective in the head phrase:
1)incoherent remarks – brief, passing, occasional casual, careless, tactless, derogatory, insulting, nasty, offensive, pointed, complementary, encouraging, innocent, critical, controversial, illogical, irrelevant, cynical, odd, silly, funny, rude, racist, sexist, defamatory;
2)overwhelming majority – handsome, huge, large, vast, massive, substantial, comfortable, decisive, clear, narrow, slender, slight, slim, tiny, wafer-thin, ten-seat, three-to-one, two-thirds, absolute, outright, overall, simple, working, parliamentary, government, Conservative, Labour, Republican, Democratic, etc., necessary, requisite;
3)loose networks – extensive, large, vast, wide, widespread, elaborate, intricate, dense, global, local, national, worldwide, strong, formal, informal, well- or poorly-organized;
4)like-thinking politicians – leading, prominent, outstanding, senior, experienced, influential, astute, clever, shrewd, corrupt, professional, left-wing, Labour, Conservative, etc.;
5)wide margins – comfortable, considerable, greater, huge, large, wide, narrow, slim, small, clear, safe;
6)cheering mob – angry, hostile, unruly, aggressive
TASK V. Use the text to complete the following:
1. Controversy immediately broke out…
2. Convention had gone far beyond …
3. Congress should recommend against …
4. James Madison successfully argued that….
5. According to Article VII of the Constitution …
6. State legislatures could have rejected the Constitution out of hand if …
7. The opponents of the new Constitution…
8. The ratification campaign …
9. Anti-federal legislators in Pennsylvania…
10. The sergeant at arms…
11. The new Constitution went into force…
TASK VI. Paraphrase the sentences given below without changing the original sense:
1.The Convention had provided in Article VII that the Constitution should be ratified by the people of each state in conventions specially called for that purpose.
In compliance with Article VII of the Constitution … .
2.New Hampshire, on June 21, 1788, became the ninth state to ratify, thus putting the new constitution into operation under the terms of Article VII.
The new Constitution took effect when ….
3.In Massachusetts the final vote for ratification came about only after the Federalists suggested that their opponents prepare a series of proposed amendments to be affixed to the Constitution for consideration should it actually be ratified.
Anti-Federalists of Massachusetts agreed to vote for ratification under the condition that … .
4.But Virginia and New York, the largest and richest of all the states, had not yet taken action, and a nation without either or both could not survive.
A new nation could survive … .
5.Alexander Hamilton led the fight for ratification in New York, with the assistance of John Jay, the most respected Federalist political figure in the state. They wisely delayed the vote on ratification until news arrived of the ratifications of New Hampshire and Virginia.
New York ratified the Constitution due to the efforts of … .
The vote on ratification was taken when … .
6.New York's ratification was conditional on the consideration of proposed amendments by the new Congress.
The Constitution was ratified by New York providing … .
TASK VII.Translate the following passages:
1). James Madison, who was not only a member of the Confederation Congress from Virginia but also a just-returned delegate from the Constitutional Convention, successfully argued that Congress should merely send the Constitution to the states without comment, thus leaving to the people the decision whether or not to adopt the new form of government.
2). So they adopted an idea first put forward in the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: the constitutional ratifying convention – an affirmation of faith in the general public's judgment.
3). The ratification debates were marked by high-minded intellectual argument and no-holds-barred political maneuvers.
4). At the time there were no clearly organized political parties, though loose networks of like-thinking politicians existed across state boundaries.
5). Supporters of the new Constitution quickly seized on the name Federalists and stigmatized their opponents by referring to them as Anti-Federalists – the implication being that many of them wanted to break up the Union into several regional confederacies.
6). Soon thereafter, Maryland and South Carolina ratified by wide margins.
TASK VIII.a) Characterize the following political leaders as Federalists or Anti-Federalists; b) Describe their role in the ratification campaign:
1. James Madison
2. Richard Henry Lee
3. John Jay
4. Alexander Hamilton
5. Edmund Randolph
6. George Mason
TASK IX.a) List the states in the order of their ratification of the Constitution; use the information from the text to prove your point:
1) New Hampshire, 2) North Carolina, 3) South Carolina, 4) Virginia, 5) Pennsylvania, 6) Rhode Island, 7) Connecticut, 8) New Jersey, 9) New York, 10) Delaware, 11) Maryland, 12) Georgia, 13) Massachusetts.
b) Describe the ratification processes in some of the states listed above; name the political leaders where possible.
c) Add states to the following vote results: