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Controversy, 2) affirmation, 3) to rid oneself of, 4) to stigmatize, 5) implication,
6) to seize on, 7) to apprehend, 8) cogency, 9) to secede, 10) to relent, 11)holdout, 12) impetus, 13) to deprive (of):
a) the assertion that something exists or is true;
b) to take into custody; arrest by legal warrant or authority;
c) the quality or state of being relevant, pertinent, to the point;
d) dispute, debate concerning a matter of opinion;
e) smth implied or suggested as naturally being inferred or understood;
f) to clear or free oneself of something objectionable;
g) to take advantage of promptly;
h) to remove or withhold something from the enjoyment or possession of;
i) to set some mark of disgrace, a stain or reproach as on one's reputation;
j) to soften in determination, to become more mild;
k) 1) a person or a party who delays signing a contract in hope of gaining more favorable terms; 2) a person who declines to participate in a group activity or undertaking;
l) impulse, stimulus;
m) to withdraw formally from an alliance, federation or association, as from a political union.
b) Translate the following sentences, use the GLOSSARY:
1. The Court, rather, has adopted an ad hoc balancing approach: “We can do little more than identify some of the factors which courts should assess in determining whether a particular defendant has been deprived of his right.
2. The Court unanimously, but with varying expressions of opinion, held that conviction by a unanimous five-person jury in a trial for a non-petty offense deprived an accused of his right to trial by jury.
3. This “two term” idea began when George Washington voluntarily retired from the presidency after being elected twice and serving eight years. Thomas Jefferson seized onWashington’s action and, in a public letter, elevated it to a tradition that prevailed until Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for a third term in 1940.
4. Justice Harlan stated emphatically that to allow a statute such as Section 415 stand would create the risky situation of allowing the government to potentially seize on the “censorship of particular words as a convenient guise for banning the expression of unpopular views.”
5. In some situations, law-enforcement officials must use deadly force to apprehend or stop an individual.
6. At stake in the Civil War was the survival of the United States of America as a single nation. Eleven Southern states, invoking the spirit of 1776, seceded from the Union in 1861 to form a nation they named the Confederate States of America.
7. The abortion controversy divides people into seemingly irreconcilable camps of those who sponsor family values and the rights of the unborn versus those who champion women’s individual rights and choice.
8. Government initiatives in medicine produced controversy about vaccinations, blood transfusions, and life-saving measures. Finally, ethnically diverse immigration produced urbanization patterns that heightened controversies over religious solicitation, religious displays in public places, and coercive religious expression in government-sponsored public forums.
9. The issue of the scope of impeachable offenses was early joined as a consequence of the Jefferson Administration’s efforts to rid itself of some of the Federalist judges who were propagandizing the country through grand jury charges and other means.
10. Like all oft-repeated truths, the argument has in time lost something of its actuality and cogency.
11. The impetus for including the commerce clause in the Constitution was the economic turmoil that prevailed under the Articles of Confederation.
12. Theimpetus for the strict scrutiny standard came from Supreme Court Justice Harlan Fiske Stone’s ruling in the case United States v. Carolene Products Co.
13. Subsequent to the Georgia Supreme Court’s affirmation of his conviction and sentence, McCleskey’s lawyers filed a petition for habeas corpus review in the United States District Court.
14. The Senate cannot originate an appointment. Its constitutional action is confined to the simple affirmation or rejection of the President’s nominations, and such nominations fail whenever it rejects them.
15. With regard to salaries, although there is no specific amount set for the president or vice president, Article II states that the president (and byimplication the vice president) shall be compensated for services rendered; however, the amount of compensation shall remain constant during the term of office and that no other compensations may be received during this period.
16. Although the Supreme Court continued to clash with the Ohio Supreme Court over the contractual nature of the bank taxes, it became clear that the main issue at hand was not whether these taxes violated the contract clause. Rather, it had more to do with whether the state supreme courts had the final word over the construction of the contract clause and, by implication, the Constitution.
17. Classifications of citizens based solely on race are by their nature odious to a free people whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality. Such classifications threaten to stigmatize persons by reason of their membership in a racial group and to incite racial hostility.
18. Even if the first trial is not completed, a second prosecution may be grossly unfair. It increases the financial and emotional burden on the accused, prolongs the period in which he is stigmatized by an unresolved accusation of wrongdoing, and may even enhance the risk that an innocent defendant may be convicted.
19. “Antlike persistency” is a patents slang expressionwhich meansthe steady tenacity of a patent practitioner or applicant who tries to wear down the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by prosecuting patent claims in the hope that the Office will eventually relent.
20. The Court observed that Congress, as well as state legislatures and state courts, are free to adopt privileges for reporters. Although efforts in Congress have failed, 49 states have done so — 33 (plus the District of Columbia) by statute and 16 by court decision, with Wyoming the sole holdout.
TASK II.Match the phrasal verbs to their definitions; find them in the text and translate the sentences with them:
to break outas in: …controversy broke out…-
to break up as in: …to break up the Union…
to break into as in: … broke into the locked house…
- to enter by force;
- to begin abruptly, arise;
- to divide into pieces, to put an end to;
TASK III. Match the words from the text to their synonyms: