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Five Subatomic Particles in a Nutshell

G Запам’ятайте зразки виразів для розповіді про країну.

U. is situated in ___; U. ___ is washed by ___; U. ___ borders on ___; the total area of U. is ___; the population of U. is ___; the capital of U. is ___; the main rivers are ___; the climate is mostly ___; U. is rich in ___; the main industrial centres are ___; U. produces ___; as an agricultural country U. grows ___ ; as for political system U. is a ___; the head of the state is ___; U. is subdivided into ___; U. is also famous for its ___.


Вправа 1. Доповніть речення словами: rivers; proclaimed in 1991; state power; various mineral resources; about 47 million; agriculture.

1. Ukraine has its own territory, higher and local bodies of ___. 2. The geographical position of Ukraine is favourable for ___. 3. The population of Ukraine is about ___. 4. The declaration of Ukrainian independence was ___. 5. The Dnieper, the Bug, the Danube are the major ___. 6. Ukraine is rich in ___.


13.2. Письмове завдання

Вправа 2. Заповніть кроссворд словами з тексту про Україну:


1. The total area of the country is 603,700 ___ kilometres. 2. The capital of Ukraine is ___. 3. Ukraine’s black soil is rather ___. 4. ___-mining is one of the main industries in Ukraine. 5. The Crimean Mountains are situated on the Crimean ___. 6. The music of Ukrainian ___ was written by Mikhail Verbitskiy. 7. ___ is one of the main agricultural crops.


13.3. Читання

Прочитайте текст зі словником.

Five Subatomic Particles in a Nutshell

Ancient Greeks philosopher Leucippus and his pupil Democritus first spoke out the idea that all substances consisted of invisible “atomos,” or atoms, as we know them today. They believed these atomos could be divided into smaller and smaller particles until they reached a point that they could no longer be divided. Although they couldn’t see the particles, Leucippus and Democritus tapped into a fundamental truth about our existence: The universe is made up of atoms and these atoms are responsible for life on Earth.

After considerable research and experiments, we now know that atoms can be divided into subatomic particles – protons, neutrons and electrons. Held together by electromagnetic force, these are the building blocks of all matters. Advances in technology, namely particle accelerators, also known as atom smashers, have enabled scientists to break subatomic particles down to even smaller pieces, some in existence for mere seconds. Subatomic particles have two classifications – elementary and composite. Luckily for us, the names of categories can go a long way in helping us understand their structure. Elementary subatomic particles, like quarks, cannot be divided into simpler particles. Composite subatomic particles, like hadrons, can. All subatomic particles share a fundamental property: They have “intrinsic angular momentum”, or spin. It means they rotate in one direction, just like a planet. Oddly enough, this fundamental property is present even when the particle isn’t moving. It’s this spin that makes all the difference.


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