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Industry, Science and Education in Kharkov
The city of Kharkiv was founded over 350 years ago at the crossroads of major transportation routes. It has now become one of Ukraine’s largest centres for science, industry and culture.
There are about 250 large industrial enterprises in the city, the most important of which are in mechanical engineering and metal working, electrical power engineering and construction materials industries. The chemical, printing and woodworking industries are also well developed, and the city has a highly developed civil engineering industry.
The products of Kharkiv companies are well known in Ukraine and abroad. They include tractors and turbines, jet aircrafts, automated machine tools, electrical motors and engines for agricultural machinery, TV sets and electrical devices, medical equipment and pharmaceuticals.
Specialists from Kharkiv have contributed greatly to rocket engineering and space exploration. Control systems for carrier rockets and space vehicles, as well as several generations of rocket systems, have been developed by research and engineering specialists from Kharkiv. These systems constitute the core of the CIS space program.
The research and development potential of the city is represented by its research and design institutes and design offices. Kharkiv is the largest regional centre for the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and over 150 institutions in Kharkov deal with science and research work.
Fundamental research schools and universities in Kharkiv are leaders in the country. Investigations by Kharkiv scientists in the fields of solid-state physics, cryobiology and cryomedicine, radio electronics, crystal synthesis, low temperature physics, genetics and selection are known worldwide.
Specialists in various fields of knowledge are trained in Kharkiv state institutions including 6 academies, 10 universities and 8 institutes. Institutions such as Kharkiv National University, NTU “KhPI”, State Law Academy, Engineering and Pedagogic Academy, and Pharmaceutical Academy are well known and respected. There is also a growing number of private educational institutions.
The high educational level of the population is a major factor of the city’s progress.
The city has 193 elementary, middle and high schools, 8 college preparatory high schools, 37 vocational schools and 4 junior colleges. The students of these schools provide a highly qualified labour pool for business enterprises and institutions.
Дайте відповіді на запитання.
1. When was Kharkiv founded? 2. Is Kharkiv the largest Ukrainian industrial centre? 3. How many industrial enterprises are there in Kharkiv? 4. What industries are presented in Kharkiv? 5. What products do Kharkiv enterprises manufacture? 6. What is Kharkiv’s contribution to the space exploration? 7. How many institutions in Kharkiv deal with science and research work? 8. What fields of science are the most developed in Kharkiv? 9. How many and which state institutions of higher education are there in Kharkiv?
18.2. Письмове завдання
Вправа 1. Заповніть пропуски в тексті такими словами та словосполученнями: leading, Peninsula, based on, education, city, globally, school, England, center, population, students, the United States, tourists.
Boston is the capital of and largest ___ in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in ___. The city has a ___ of about 618,000 people. In 1630, Puritan colonists from ___ founded the city on the Shawmut ___. Its rich history now helps attract over 20 million ___ every year. The city was the site of several “firsts”, including America’s first public ___, Boston Latin School (1635), and the first subway system in the United States (1897). With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is an international ___ of higher ___ and a center for medicine. More than 100 colleges and universities are located in the Greater Boston Area, with more than 250,000 ___ attending college in Boston and Cambridge alone. The city’s economy is also ___ research, electronics, engineering, finance, and high technology – principally biotechnology. Besides, the city is a ___ finance center. The city was also ranked number one for innovation, both ___ and in North America.