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SEMANTIC RELATIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF WORDS
1. Intralinguistic Relations of Words.
2. Types of Semantic Relations. Proximity. Equivalence.
3. Inclusion. Hyponimic Structures. Opposition.
4. Semantic Classification of Words. Synonymy.
5. Lexical and Terminological Sets, Lexico-Semantic Groups and Semantic
6. Antonymy. Classification of Antonyms.
Key words:intralinguistic relations, syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic relations, semantic relations, proximity, equivalence, inclusion, opposition, polar oppositions, relative oppositions, hyponymic relations, classifier, hyperonym, hyponym, synonym, stylistic synonymy, ideographic synonymy, ideographic-stylistic synonymy, synonymic dominant, lexical sets, lexico-semantic groups, semantic fields, antonym
1. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
1) common feature:
2) common feature:
2. Organize the given words in accordance with their hyponymic relations. Enumerate the general terms (hyperonyms).
1) train, light lorry, bicycle, vehicle, cabriolet, car, heavy lorry, estate car, motorcycle, bus, lorry, three-door hatchback, three-way dump truck;
2) turtle, mammal, squirrel, animal, reptile, seal, tiger, lizard, leopard, fox, wolf, iguana, bear, snake, feline, panther.
3. Group the sentences into pairs so that in one sentence there should be a hyperonym (the more general term) and in the other Ц the hyponym (the more concrete term).
Model:The man was murdered. Ц The man was poisoned.
1. He gave her a ring with five emeralds as a birthday present. 2. The man was poisoned. 3. She looked at him. 4. He heard a nightingale singing. 5. He is an officer.
6. It‟s an old car. 7. She was wearing a black dress. 8. They built a boat. 9. The man was murdered. 10. She stared at him. 11. He is a colonel. 12. It‟s an old vehicle.
13. He gave her a ring with five precious stones as a birthday present. 14. They bought flowers in the shop. 15. She was wearing a dark dress. 16. She has got a child.
17. They built a yacht. 18. They bought lilacs in the shop. 19. She has got a daughter.
20. He heard a bird singing.
4. Give meanings of the following synonyms. State the difference in the connotational aspect of their meaning.
Model:love Ц worship
Love Ц an intense feeling of deep affection
Worship Ц the feeling of profound reverence and strong adoration
Emotive charge and expressiveness
(intensity) are different.
Confidence Ц assurance; to satisfy Ц to delight; alone Ц lonely; to create Ц to manufacture; to blush Ц to redden; to tremble Ц lo shudder.
5. State the difference in the pragmatic aspect of meaning of the given synonyms. Consult a dictionary.
Model:to see Ц to behold
The verb to behold is formal, whereas the verb to see is neutral.
Car Ц automobile; refreshment Ц bite; soldier Ц warrior; to begin Ц to commence; face Ц puss; to leave Ц to abandon; hearty Ц cordial, hand Ц fin; to cry Ц to weep.
6. Look up in a dictionary meanings of the given pairs of synonyms. Classify synonyms into stylistic, ideographic and ideographic-stylistic.
Model:mum Ц mother
The words have the same denotational meaning Сa female parentТ, but they differ in the pragmatic aspect of meaning as the word mum is informal. Thus, this pair of synonyms belongs to the group of stylistic synonyms.
Information Ц data; associate Ц pal; infectious Ц contagious; to ask Ц to interrogate; to meet Ц to encounter; to reckon Ц to estimate; mum Ц mother, faculty Ц talent; to foretell Ц to predict; to walk Ц to promenade; blemish Ц flaw; heaven Ц sky; intelligent Ц smart; affair Ц business.
7. Find the synonymic dominant in the following groups of synonyms.
To sob Ц to weep Ц to cry; to brood Ц to reflect Ц to mediate Ц to think; to glare Ц to peep Ц to look Ц to stare Ц to glance; strange Ц quaint Ц odd Ц queer; terror Ц fear Ц horror; angry Ц furious Ц enraged; to flash Ц to gleam Ц to sparkle Ц to blaze Ц to shine.
8. Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets. Give them corresponding names.
Detached house, wire-haired fox terrier, climbing robe, bull terrier, disk, horse (vaulting horse), hardware, multi-storey block of flats, monitor, terraced house, Scottish terrier, mainframe, trampoline, interface, Bedlington terrier, floor, high-rise block of flats, landing mat, Pekinese, asymmetric bars, software, weekend house, springboard, server, cottage, beam, semi-detached house.
9. Classify the following words and word-combinations into lexico-semantic groups (1) and semantic fields (2) under the headings СeducationТ and СfeelingТ.
Book, to bear malice, displeased, to teach, intelligent, indifference, classmate, to adore, affection, to coach, frustrated, pedagogical, college, hatred, day-student, in a temper, to repeat a year, passion, calm (adj), exercise, reader, satisfaction, to write, wrathful, knowledge, tuition, jealousy, course, to supervise, to infuriate, disciplined, happy, to develop habits, unrest, shock, methodological, to hurt, to smatter of (in), angry.
10. Give antonyms to the following words. Group them into antonyms of the same root (a) and antonyms of different roots (b).
The antonym of the word artistic is inartistic. These words belong to the group of antonyms of the same root (group a).
Happy (adj), careful (adj), dwarf (adj), obedience (n), criticism (n), above (adv), regular (adj), asleep (adj), back (adv), polite (adj), triumph (n), hope (n), artistic (adj), appear (v), prewar (adj), far (adv), logical (adj), love (n), known (adj).
11. Classify antonymous pairs into contradictories, contraries and incompatibles. To prove the division give intermediate members of the antonymous set where it is necessary, or give other members of the group which are excluded in the given antonymous pair.
Model:arid Ц awash
These antonyms refer to the group of contraries as they are polar members of a gradual opposition which has the following intermediate members: dry Ц wet.
Poetry Ц prose, inch Ц foot, man Ц woman, old Ц young, beautiful Ц ugly, Monday Ц Sunday, teacher Ц pupil, to adore Ц to loathe, one Ц thousand, tremendous Ц tiny, iron Ц copper, to accept Ц to reject, round Ц square, creditor Ц debtor, immaculate Ц filthy, boy Ц man, day Ц night, clever Ц stupid, red Ц brown, arid Ц awash, inside Ц outside, open Ц shut, November Ц March, evil Ц good.