1. Types and Ways of Forming Words.

2. Affixation. Classification of Suffixes.

3. Prefixation. Classification of Prefixes.

4. Productive and Non-Productive Affixes.

5. Etymology of derivational Affixes.

6. Valency of Affixes and Bases.



Key words:word-formation, word-derivation, affixation, conversion, word- composition, shortening, blending, acronymy, sound interchange, sound imitation (onomatopoeia), distinctive stress, back-formation, suffixation, deverbal suffixes/prefixes, denominal suffixes/prefixes, deadjectival suffixes/prefixes, monosemantic suffixes/prefixes, polysemantic suffixes/prefixes, prefixation, reversative prefixes, pejorative prefixes, locative prefixes, productive affixes, non- productive affixes, hybrids, valency





1. In accordance with the part that is cut off to form a new word classify cases of shortening into four groups: 1) initial shortenings (aphesis); 2) medial shortenings (syncope); 3) final shortenings (apocope); 4) both initial and final shortenings.


Model:net < internet

The initial part of the original word is cut off. Consequently, the new word refers to the first group.


hols < holidays; vac < vacuum cleaner; tec < detective; plane < aeroplane; Frisco < (San) Francisco; quiz < inquisitive; bus < omnibus; curio < curiosity; miss < mistress; sport < disport; soccer < Association Football; fan < fanatic; circs < circumstances; chute < parachute; Aline < Adeline; cert < certainty; tend < attend; mart < market; coke < coca-cola; Liz < Elizabeth; prep-school < preparatory-school; gator < alligator; cuss < customer.


2. Determine the original components of the following blends. Define which type (additive or restrictive) the blends belong to.


Model:to guesstimate, seadrome

The verb to guesstimate is formed by combining the words guess and estimate. The given blend may be transformed into a phrase consisting of complete stems combined by the conjunction and. Thus, to guesstimate belongs to the additive type of blends.

The noun seadrome is formed by combining the words sea and airdrome. The given blend

may be transformed into a phrase, the first element of which serves as modifier to the second. Thus, seadrome belongs to the restrictive type of blends.



Positron, brunch, absotively, motel, spam, flush, slanguage, twirl, bit, mingy, transceiver, paratroops, crocogator, oilitics, dipward, windoor, newtopia, glumpy, cablegram, smaze, flextime, Oxbridge.


3. Define which words have been combined to form the following computer terms. Give their meanings.


Netiquette, emoticon, netizen, technophobe.


4. According to their pronunciation classify the given acronyms into two groups: 1) those that are read as ordinary English words; 2) those with the alphabetic reading.


Model:NATFHE  National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher

Education (group 1); MP   Member of Parliament (group 2)


NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, UNO United Nations Organization, WHO The World Health Organization, BUPA British United Provident Association, AGM annual general meeting, WI Women's Institute, UCAS Universities and Colleges Admissions Service, IRA Irish Republican Army, NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, CID Criminal Investigation Department, SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, UEFA Union of European Football Associations, IQ intelligence quotient, NAAFI Navy, Army, and Air Force Institutes, MRBM medium-range ballistic missile, FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation, TEFL teaching of English as a foreign language, UFO unidentified flying object, UNRRA United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, VIP very important person, FIFA Federal International Football Association, GI government (or general) issue.


5. Group the words formed by sound-interchange into: 1) those formed by vowel-interchange or ablaut (& suffixation); 2) those formed by consonant- interchange; 3) those formed by combining both means, i.e. vowel- and consonant- interchange.


Model:relief (n) relieve (v): consonant-interchange


Long (adj) length (n), speak (v) speech (n), wreathe (v) wreath (n), bake (v) batch (n), strike (v) stroke (n), house (n) house (v), breathe (v) breath (n), believe (v) belief (n), full (adj) fill (v), lose (v) loss (n), prove (v) proof (n), knot (n) knit (v), glaze (v) glass (n), shelve (v) shelf (n), wake (v) watch (n), loathe (v) loath (n), use (v) use (n), sing (v) song (n), clothe (v) cloth (n), bite (v) bit (n), halve (v) half (n), abide (v) abode (n), serve (v) serf (n), deep (adj) depth (n), bathe (v) bath (n), ride (v) road (n).


6. Match the Ukrainian words with their English equivalents.


Ukrainian English


1. 1. grumble

2. ( ) 2. hushaby/hush

3. 3. pop

4. 4. thump-thump

5. 5. cheep

6. , 6. giggle

7. 7. moo

8. - 8. croak

9. -, 9. whiz

10. 10. bang

11. 11. babble

12. 12. quacking

13. 13. neigh

14. , , 14. mew


15. , 15. mumble

16. 16. fizz

17. , , 17. boo

18. 18. cackle

19. 19. buzz

20. 20. cuckoo


7. From the sentences given below write out the words built up by back- formation. Give the original words from which they are formed.


Model:They commentate on live Monday matches.

The word commentate (v) is formed by means of back-derivation. The word from which it was formed is commentator (n).


1. They both enthused over my new look. 2. She didn‟t like that he frivoled in such a serious situation. 3. It was pure greed that made me finish all those chocolates.

4. They‟ve asked me to edit one of the volumes in their new series of Shakespeare plays. 5. The police found the people who burgled our house while we were away on holidays. 6. They televised a live debate between the party leaders. 7. There is no one today worth butling for. 8. The existing systems begin to obsolesce. 9. They didn‟t want him to orate at the meeting. 10. I was very peeved by his refusal to cooperate.



11.I intuited his real identity. 12. Mountain peaks are classified according to their shape.


8. What serves as a word-formation means in the given pairs of words. Stress these words.


Model:alternate (v) alternate (adj)

The distinctive stress is a word-formation means in the given pair of words: alternate (v)

alternate (adj)  .


1) compound (n, adj) compound (v); 2) perfect (adj) perfect (v);

3) permit (n) permit (v); 4) progress (n) progress (v); 5) frequent (adj)

frequent (v); 6) affix (n) affix (v); 7) contact (n) contact (v); 8) insult (n)

insult (v); 9) abstract (adj) abstract (v); 10) decrease (n) decrease (v);

11) protest (n) protest (v); 12) produce (n) produce (v); 13) survey (n) survey (v);

14) conflict (n) conflict (v); 15) subject (n, adj) subject (v).


9. Distribute the given words formed by means of the polysemantic suffix -ship according to three meanings of this suffix into three corresponding groups: 1) skills or ability; 2) position or occupation; 3) relationship or connection between people.


Workmanship, comradeship, musicianship, chairmanship, friendship, professorship, showmanship, lectureship, kinship, sportsmanship, acquaintanceship, studentship, salesmanship, doctorship, partnership.


10. Classify suffixes forming the given nouns according to their generalizing meaning into three groups: 1) suffixes denoting people of different professions or of different kinds of activity; 2) suffixes denoting collectivity or collection of; 3) suffixes denoting diminutiveness.


Membership, assistant, lecturette, trainee, sisterhood, actress, piglet, painter, machinery, aunty, yuppiedom, historian, duckling, finery, scientist, babykins, readership, supervisor, nightie, aristocracy.


11. Translate the given combinations of words into English. Pay special attention to the formation of different in meaning adjectives by means of adding different suffixes to one and the same derivational base.



The English for is a favourite author. The English for

is favourable weather.


1) exhaust: ; 2) history: ; 3) honour: ‟; 4) respect: ; 5) skill: , ; 6) culture:

; 7) touch: ;


8) delight: ; 9) economy:

; 10) contempt: .


12. Combine the prefixes in the box with the appropriate derivational base from the list. Classify the prefixes according to the lexico-grammatical character of the base they are attached to and according to the part of speech they form.


Model: dis-

The prefix dis- can be combined with the bases: -advantage, -favour, -order. It is added to the nominal bases to form new nouns. Thus, this prefix can be qualified as a denominal and noun-forming prefix.


dis-, il-, non-, ir-, un-, im-, in-, de-, a-


Legal, relevant, mature, regulate, moral, ability, payment, happy, responsible, patient, stabilize, honour, smoker, learn, formally, typical, logical, rational, possible, classify, agreement, verbal, lock, practical, dependently, mystify, resistible, sensual, literate, obedience, academic, tie, adequately, septic, clean.


13. Analyze different meanings of the prefix over-forming the given words. Classify these words according to the generalizing meaning of the prefix over-under the following headings: 1) excess; 2) time (age); 3) position or place;

4) addition; 5) outer, covering; 6) a person engaged in a certain activity or an

agent of an action.


Model:overlord (n), overpaint (n), overeager (adj)

As the noun overlord means a ruler, especially a feudal lord, it refers to group 6. The word overpaint has the meaning paint added as a covering layer and may be referred to group 5. The adjective overeager means excessively eager and so it refers to group 1.


Overlay (v, n), over-king (n), over-forty (n), overdevelop (v), overhang (v), overprint (v), overcoat (n), overambitious (adj), overseventeen (n), overhead (adv), overreacher (n), overtime (adv), overstitch (n), overman (n), overprotective (adj), overseer (n), overcast (v), overfly (v), overdose (n), overtwenty (n), overlap (v), overnighter (n), overleaf (adv), overdub (v), overboot (n), overcareful (adj), overside (adv), overlooker (n), overall (n), overdress (v), overground (adj), overlander (n).


14. The prefix pre-making up the italicized words has two different meanings. Write X in the space provided if it means that one thing happens before another. Write Y if it means that something has already been done.


1. I hate the pre-Christmas panic that seems to hit my family in the middle of


2.Eventually the pre-paid envelopes were sent from the mail order company.

3.His preconceived ideas made it impossible for anyone to get him to listen to



their side of the argument.

4. There were many pre-fourteenth century portraits in the exhibition.

5. The jury unanimously reached the decision that the killing was premeditated.

6.He married late and his wife predeceased him.

7. Bake the cake in a pre-heated oven for twenty minutes.

8.Ann had invited us round early for a pre-dinner drink.

9. Some football players develop a special routine to cope with pre-match


10. We had been given tickets to a preview of the film.


15. Form adjectives from the italicized words given in brackets by means of attaching appropriate suffixes to them. Analyze the valency of the adjective-forming affixes in terms of the bases they are attached to.


Model:The time seemed to stretch out in a (dream...) manner

The adjective-forming suffix -like is attached to the nominal base dream- to form the adjective dreamlike.


1. She smiled a slightly (ironic...) smile. 2. He felt very (protect...) towards her and loved her dearly. 3. The newspapers printed a shocking and (shame...) story.

4. She slept on a (collapse...) bed with rough, (prickle...) sheets. 5. He filled the frequent silences with (comic...) anecdotes. 6. There were two letters from Michael, warm, (humor...), and full of information. 7. Mr and Mrs Bixby lived in a (small,..) apartment. 8. His voice was cold and (dead...). 9. I have extra French lessons with a (retire...) schoolmaster. 10. Judy was very (compliment...) about my work. 11. There

is the danger of an (accident...) explosion that could be caused by a gas leak. 12. I understood that it was (permit...) to ask a question. 13. She thought how (fool...) he‟d been and was not angry any more. 14. It‟s time you chose between the two (alternate...) lifestyles.


16. Add appropriate suffixes to the verbal bases to form words corresponding to the meaning of the given sentences. Analyze the valency of the verbal bases in terms of the suffixes they can be combined with.


Model:There was an ... story in the paper this morning. (amuse)

The verbal base amuse- is combined with the adjective-forming suffix -ing to form the adjective amusing.


1. He made himself ... by handing round the coffee cups. (use) 2. He felt strongly that schools did not provide the kind of ... needed for the development of good leadership qualities which should be instilled from early childhood. (encourage)

3. The photos made him look quite ... . (attract) 4. He explained that he would like to become ... in industry (manage) 5. Mr Smith told me a lot about ... of printing in the

15th century. (invent) 6. Deaths caused by reckless driving are ... . (avoid) 7. Her ... on staying in the best hotel was very ... and ... . (insist, tire, annoy) 8. She is suing the company for unfair ... . (dismiss) 9. My little daughter has an ... friend. (imagine)

10. I did not want to encounter other ... to the post. (appoint)


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