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The conjunction is a part of speech which denotes connections between objects and phenomena. It connects parts of the sentence, clauses, and sentences.

Sadie brought them in and went back to the door. (Mansfield)

... the blinds were down in the dining-room and the lights turned on — and all the lights were red-roses. (Mansfield)

The other day I was saying to Fabermacher that Haviland isn't really cruel, he's just thoughtless. And Fabermacher said that was the cruellest thing about the human race. And he's right.


§ 2. According to their morphological structure conjunctions are divided into the following groups:

(1)simple conjunctions (and, or, but, till, after, that, so, where, when, etc.).

Some of the simple conjunctions are homonymous with preposi­tions, adverbs, and pronouns.

(2)derivative conjunctions (until, unless, etc.).

(3)compound conjunctions (however, whereas, wherever, etc.). These conjunctions are few.

(4)composite conjunctions (as well as, as long as, in case, for fear (thatX on the ground that, for the reason that, etc.).

Some conjunctions are used in pairs (correlatively): both... and, either... or, not only... but (also), neither... nor, whether... or.

If anyone had asked him if he wanted to own her soul, the ques­tion would have seemed to him both ridiculous and sentimental. (Galsworthy)

... nor would John Reed have found it out himself; he was not quick either of vision or conception. (Ch. Bronte) Her son had not only come home, but he had come home a good person. (Abrahams)

Well, they were honest eyes, he concluded, and in them was neither smallness nor meanness. (London)

He was aware of vague memories of rain and wind and snow, but whether he had been beaten by the storm for two days or two weeks he did not know. (London)

§ 3. As to their function conjunctions fall under two classes:

(1)coordinating conjunctions;

(2)subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions join coordinate clauses in a compound sentence (a), or homogeneous parts in a simple sentence (b), or homo­geneous subordinate clauses in a complex sentence (c), or independent sentences (d).

1. He had said he would stay quiet in the hall, but he simply couldn't any more; and crossing the gravel of the drive he lay down on the grass beyond. (Galsworthy)

2. He opened his eyes and stared quietly at the pure sky. (Wil­son)

3. Hers was that common insularity of mind that makes human creatures believe that their color, creed, and politics are best and right and that other human creatures scattered over the world are less fortunately placed than they. (London)

4. Fabermacher wasted no time on a comedy of errors, and Havi- land apologized for his mistake. But he was not as impressed as Erik had wanted him to be. (Wilson)

Subordinating conjunctions generally join a subordinate or de­pendent clause to a principal clause (a), or adverbial modifiers to the predicate in a simple sentence (b), or sometimes they join homogene­ous parts (c).

1. When he was eight, he got work in another mill. (London)

2. He shook his head a bit as if in wonder that he had permitted himself to be caught in such crosscurrents. (Wilson)

3. My look or something else must have struck her as offen­sive, for she spoke with extreme, though suppressed irritation. (Ch. Bronte)


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