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Chapter XI. § 1. The interjection is a part of speech which expresses various emo­tions without naming them.


§ 1. The interjection is a part of speech which expresses various emo­tions without naming them.


§ 2. According to their meaning interjections fall under two main groups, namely emotional interjections and imperative interjections.

1. Emotional interjections express the feelings of the speaker. They are: ah, oh, eh, bravo, alas, etc.

... A man jumped on top of the barricade and waving exuberantly shouted, "Americans! Hurrah!" (Heym) (joy)

Alas! The white house was empty and there was a bill in the window "To let". (Dickens) (sorrow)

Psha! There's no possibility of being witty without a little ill nature. (Sheridan) (contempt)

Oh, bother! I can't see anyone now. Who is it? (Shaw) (indigna­tion)

"Dear me!" says Mr. Chillip meekly smiling with something shin­ing in his eyes. (Dickens) (surprise)

2. Imperative interjections show the will of the speaker or his order or appeal to the hearer. They are: here, hush, sh-sh, well, come, now, etc.

Here! I've had enough of this. I'm going. (Shaw) (protest)

"Upon my word I was not awake, sir," replied Oliver earnestly. "I was not, indeed, sir." "Tush, tush, my dear!" said the Jew abruptly resuming his old manner. (Dickens) (order)


§ 3. Interjections may be primary and secondary.

1. Primary inteijections are not derived from other parts of speech. Most of them are simple words: ah, oh, ehf pooh, hum, fie, bravo, hush. Only a few primary interjections are composite: heigh-ho! hey-ho! holla-ho! gee-ho!

2. Second interjections are derived from other parts of speech

They are homonymous with the words they are derived from. They are: well, now, here, there, come, why, etc.

(Derivative interjections should not be confused with exclamation- words, such as nonsense, shame, good, etc.)

Derivative interjections maybe simple: well, here, there, come, etc. and composite: dear me, confound it, hang it, etc.

Interjections are used as independent sentence-words or independ­ent elements of the sentence.1

TheDaughter: Sixpence thrown away! Really mamma, you might have spared Freddy that.

TheGentleman: Phew! (Shaw)

Well, I don't like those mysterious little pleasure trips that he is so fond of taking. (Voynich)

Note. Formulas of courtesy, greetings, etc. should not be regarded as interjections. Thus, good-bye, thank you art not interjections because they do not express emotion or will.

See Chapter XV, §42.


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