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Exercises. I. Define the meanings of the words in the following sentences
I. Define the meanings of the words in the following sentences. Say how the meanings of the same word are associated one with another.
1. I walked into Hyde Park, fell flat upon the grass and almost immediately fell asleep. 2. a) 'Hello', I said, and thrust my hand through the bars, whereon the dog became silent and licked me prodigiously, b) At the end of the long bar, leaning against the counter was a slim pale individual wearing a red bow-tie. 3. a) I began to search the flat, looking in drawers and boxes to see if I could find a key. b) I tumbled with a sort of splash upon the keys of a ghostly piano, c) Now the orchestra is playing yellow cocktail music and the opera of voices pitches a key higher, d) Someone with a positive manner, perhaps a detective, used the expression 'madman' as he bent over Welson's body that afternoon, and the authority of his voice set the key for the newspaper re port next morning. 4. a) Her mouth opened crookedly half an inch, and she shot a few words at one like pebbles, b) Would you like me to come to the mouth of the river with you? 5. a) I sat down for a few minutes with my head in my hands, until I heard the phone taken up inside and the butler's voice calling a taxi, b) The minute hand of the electric clock jumped on to figure twelve, and, simultaneously, the steeple of St. Mary's whose vicar always kept his clock by the wireless began its feeble imitation of Big Ben. 6. a) My head felt as if it were on a string and someone were trying to pull it off. b) G. Quartermain, board chairman and chief executive of Supernational Corporation was a bull of a man who possessed more power than many heads of the state and exercised it like a king.
II. Copy out the following pairs of words grouping together the ones which represent the same meaning of each word. Explain the different meanings and the different usages, giving reasons for your answer. Use dictionaries if necessary.
smart clothes, a smart answer, a smart house, a smart garden, a smart repartee, a smart officer, a smart blow, a smart punishment
a stubborn child, a stubborn look, a stubborn horse, stubborn resistance, a stubborn fighting, a stubborn cough, stubborn depression
sound lungs, a sound scholar, a sound tennis-player, sound views, sound advice, sound criticism, a sound ship, a sound whipping
edible roots, the root of the tooth, the root of the matter, the root of all evil, square root, cube root
to perform one's duty, to perform an operation, to perform a dance, to perform a play
to kick the ball, to kick the dog, to kick off one's slippers, to kick smb. downstairs
III. The verb "to take" is highly polysemantic in Modern English. On which meanings of the verb are the following jokes based? Give your own examples to illustrate the other meanings of the word.
1. "Where have you been for the last four years?"
"And did you finally get well?"
2. "Doctor, what should a woman take when she is run down?"
"The license number, madame, the license number."
3. Proctor (exceedingly angry): So you confess that this unfortunate Freshman was carried to this frog pond and drenched. Now what part did you take in this disgraceful affair?
Sophomore (meekly): The right leg, sir.
IV. Explain the basis for the following jokes. Use the dictionary when in doubt.
1. Сa11er: I wonder if I can see your mother, little boy. Is she engaged?
W I l l I e: Engagedl She's married.
2. Booking C l e r k (at a small village station): You'll have to change twice before you get to York.
Villager (unused to travelling): Goodness me! And I've only brought the clothes I'm wearing.
3. The weather forecaster hadn't been right in three months, and his resignation caused little surprise. His alibi, however, pleased the city council.
"I can't stand this town any longer," read his note. "The climate doesn't agree with me."
4. Professor: You missed my class yesterday, didn't you?
Unsubdued student: Not in the least, sir, not in the least.
5. “A what?” "Papa, what kind of a robber is a page?"
"It says here that two pages held up the bride's train."
V. Read the following jokes. Analyse the collocability of the italicized words and state its relationship with the meaning.
1. L a d у (at party): Where is that pretty maid who was passing our cocktails a while ago?
Hostess: Oh, you are looking for a drink?
L a d y: No, I'm looking for my husband.
2. P e g g у: I want to help you, Dad. I shall get the dress-maker to teach me to cut out gowns.
D a d: I don't want you to go that far, Peg, but you might cut out cigarettes, and taxi bills.
3. There are cynics who claim that movies would be better if they shot less films and more actors.
4. К i 11 y: Is your wound sore, Mr. Pup?
Kitty: Why, sister said she cut you at the dinner last night.
VI. Read the entries for the English word "court" and the Russian "суд" in an English-Russian and Russian-English dictionary. Explain the differences in the semantic structure of both words.