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Occupations in the Construction Industry
The construction industry is divided into three major segments. The construction of buildings segment includes contractors called general contractors who build residential, industrial, commercial, and other buildings. Heavy and civil engineering construction contractors build sewers, roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, and other projects related to infrastructure. Specialty trade contractors perform specialized activities related to all types of construction such as carpentry, painting, plumbing, and electrical work.
Construction is usually done or coordinated by general contractors who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercial building. They take full responsibility for the complete job, except for specified portions of the work that may be omitted
from the general contract. Although general contractors may do a portion of the work with their own crews, they often subcontract most of the work to heavy construction or specialty trade contractors.
Specialty trade contractors usually do the work of only one trade, such as painting, carpentry, or electrical work, or of two or more closely related trades, such as plumbing and heating. Beyond fitting their work to that of the other trades, specialty trade contractors have no responsibility for the structure as a whole. They obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects, or property owners.
Construction trades workers are employed in a large variety of occupations that are involved in all aspects of the construction industry. Brick masons build and repair walls, floors, partitions and other structures with brick, panels, concrete block, stone, and other masonry materials. Carpenters construct, erect, install, or repair structures made of wood, such as partitions, putting in doors and windows, building stairs, and laying floors. Electricians install, connect, test, and maintain building electrical systems which can also include lighting, climate control, security, and communications. Glaziers are responsible for selecting, cutting, installing, replacing, and removing all types of glass. Insulation workers line and cover structures with insulating materials. Painters and paperhangers stain, varnish, and apply other finishes to buildings and other structures and apply decorative coverings to walls and ceilings. Plumbers install, maintain, and repair many different types of pipe systems. They may also install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Plasterers apply plaster, concrete, and similar materials to interior and exterior
64 Английский языкдля студентов строительных специальностей
UNIT 3. JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION I 65
walls and ceilings. Roofers repair and install roofs made of tar or asphalt and gravel, rubber or thermoplastic, metal or shingles. Reinforcing iron and metal workers place and install iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or frameworks of buildings, bridges, and other structures. Lastly, construction labourers perform a wide range of physically demanding tasks at construction sites, such as excavation, waste removal, and demolition. Many construction trades workers perform their services with the assistance of helpers. These workers assist trades workers and perform duties requiring less skill.
First-line supervisors and managers of construction trades and extraction workers oversee trades workers and helpers and ensure that work is done well, safely, and according to the code. They plan the job and solve problems as they arise. Those with good organizational skills and exceptional supervisory ability may advance to construction management occupations, including project manager, field manager or superintendent. These workers are responsible for getting a project completed on schedule by working with the architect's plans, making sure that materials are delivered on time, assigning work, overseeing craft supervisors, and ensuring that every phase of the project is completed properly and expeditiously. They also resolve problems and make sure that work proceeds without interruptions.
15. Find in Text ЗА the paragraph describing different