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Main Theoretical Concepts:
Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present - day pronunciation is called living.
Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history of the language is called historical.
e.g. question ['kwestjǝn] → ['kwesʧn]
As far as the direction of assimilation is concerned it can be:
1. progressive (A → B), when the 1st of the 2 sounds affected by the assimilation makes the second sound similar to itself
e.g. what's this - [z] is replaced by [s] under the influence of [t]
2. regressive (A←B), when the preceding consonant is influenced by the one following it.
e.g. news , newspaper - [z] → [s] under the influence of [p]
3. reciprocal, double (A↔B), when two adjacent consonants influence each other
e.g. twenty ['twentI] - [t] becomes labialized under the influence of [w]. [w] is assimilated to the voiceless plosive [t] and is partly devoiced.
Assimilation may be of three degrees:
1. complete: the articulation of the assimilated consonant fully coincides with that of the assimilating one
e.g. horse - shoe (horse + shoe ) - [s] changes into [s]
does she - [z] → [S] in rapid speech
2. partial: the assimilated consonant retains its main phonemic features and becomes only partly similar in some feature of its articulation to the assimilating sound.
e.g. [t, d, n, l, s, z] are assimilated to the dental consonants [t, d]
3. intermediate: the assimilated consonant changes into a different sound but does not coincide with the assimilating consonant.
e.g. goose , gooseberry - [s] [z] under the influence of [b]
Assimilation is called contextual if the articulation of a word is changed in combination with other words
e.g. news, newspaper, horse-shoe, etc.
The modification can be conditioned: a) by the complementary distribution of the phonemes; b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at the junction of words; c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial.
Topic of the report: Parts of the world (continents, oceans).
Listening: Round the world. Guess the country.
Task: You will hear three guessing games. One person thinks of a country, and says two or three things about it. The others try to guess the country. Listen to the tape and, every time there is a pause, try to guess the country.
After listening to the dialogs twice, reproduce them from the third person singular.
to be divided
Topic of the report: Spiders: tarantula, black widow.
Listening: Tarantula. One day in California. Fear of spiders.
Task: You will hear four extracts about spiders. After listening to it, mark the facts about tarantulas in the table. Which do you think are true? Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’ in column A and B.
After listening to the stories twice, reproduce them from the third person singular.
Topic of the report for the next listening: Tell about embarrassing situations that have ever happened to you.
Here are some examples:
- After a meal in a restaurant, you realise you have no money with you.
- You see someone you’ve met before, and you can’t remember their name.
- You forget a close friend’s birthday.
Topic of the report: Tell about embarrassing situations that have ever happened to you.
Listening: Embarrassing moments. Sunday afternoon.
Task: You will hear a woman telling a story about an embarrassing occasion. The story is in eight sections. Each time the tape stops, try to guess what will happen in the next section, and complete the sentences.
Section 2 Suddenly I heard…
Section 3 I opened the door, and I saw…
Section 4 They said…
Section 5 So I…
Section 6 When my husband came back…
Section 7 Then we discovered that…
Section 8 So they…
After listening to the story twice, reproduce it from the third person singular.
knocking on the door
to go mad
Listening: Embarrassing moments. Two stories.
Task: You will hear two stories about embarrassing situations. After listening to the stories twice, answer the questions below in the written form.
Where was the speaker? Why was she there?
What time of year was it? What was the weather like?
What were other people doing?
What did the dogs do?
Where was the speaker?
Why was he there?
Who did he see?
What did she look like?
What did he decide to do?
Was she his friend?
to walk a dog
to creep up
to tug one’s hair
to be pleased at
Topic of the report for the next listening: Reasons of global warming and its consequences.
Topic of the report: Reasons of global warming and its consequences.
Listening:FC, 2008: Test 1, Paper 4, Part 1.
Task:You will hear people talking in four different situations twice. For questions 1-4, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
1. You overhear a woman recommending a campsite.
Why does she recommend it?
A It’s close to tourist attractions.
B Its’ in an area of natural beauty.
C It has a wide range of facilities.
2. You overhear two friends talking about global warming.
How does the girl feel about it?
A pessimistic about the future
B surprised at the effects it’s having
C unconvinced that there’s a problem
3. You overhear a young couple talking about moving to the country.
Why does the man object to the idea?
A He wouldn’t be able to work there.
B He’d miss the facilities of the city.
C He wouldn’t be near to his friends.
4. You hear a part of a radio programme about food.
Why should listeners call the programme?
A to take part in a recipe competition
B to find out about a cookery course
C to ask questions about cooking
to drop in
admin tasksTopic of the report for the next listening: Snow-kiting as a winter sport
Topic of the report: Snow-kiting as a winter sport
Listening:FC, 2008: Test 1, Paper 4, Part 1.
Task:You will hear people talking in 4 different situations twice. For questions 5-8, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
1. You hear the beginning of a programme about college canteens.
What point is being made about them?
A The choice of food has improved.
B Students like the food on offer there.
C Teachers complain about the quality of the food.
2. You hear a young woman talking about her career.
Why did she accept a job in a bookshop?
A She needed a steady income.
B She thought it would be enjoyable.
C She hoped to improve certain skills.
3. You hear part of a programme about a clothes designer.
What does the woman like about the clothes he designs?
A They are practical.
B They are colourful.
C They are original.
4. You overhear a discussion about the sport of snow-kiting.
What does the man say about it?
A It’s easier to learn than other winter sports.
B It’s more dangerous than other winter sports.
C It requires less equipment than other winter sports.
to praise to the sky
Topic of the report for the next listening: Tell about 2-3 party games you know. Answer the following:
- What do you need to play it?
- How many people do you need?
- How do you play it?
- How do you win?
Topic of the report: Tell about 2-3 party games you know.
Task:You will hear children describing the four games. After listening to the tape, complete the table below.
After the second listening reproduce the rules of the games.
to get messy
roll of toilet paper
to wrap up
Topic of the report for the next listening: Shakespeare’ play Macbeth. It’s success and tragedy.
Topic of the report: Shakespeare’ play Macbeth. It’s success and tragedy.
Listening:Believe it or not. Macbeth.
Task:You will hear a woman talking about a superstition that is common among actors in the theater. Listen to the tape twice and answer the questions:
- turn round three times
- say ‘Macbeth’ backwards
- say ‘Sorry’
- knock on the door
- shrug one’s shoulders
- leave the room
- leave the theaterWhat are the reasons of the superstition according to the speakers’ opinion?
to break the spell
in a clockwise direction
to shrug off
to get stabbed
Topic of the report for the next listening: Hot- air balloon trips.
Topic of the report:Hot-air balloon trips.
Listening:FC, 2008: Test 2, Paper 4, Part 4.
Task:You will hear an interview with Patric Shaw, who works as a pilot for a company that organises hot-air balloon trips, twice. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
A how far the wind will take them
B whether they will hit some obstacle
C what the experience of landing will be like
A It’s the best way of learning about balloons.
B It provides some experience of flying a balloon.
C It can be a fun way of earning extra income.
A poor communication with the pilot
B unpredictable weather conditions
C the nervousness of the passengers
A be physically strong.
B have good social skills.
C know their area well.
A fail to cooperate with each other.
B distract him with unnecessary questions.
C don’t accept the way things should be done.
A It is often difficult to determine who has won.
B The finishing target area is often unmarked.
C Some competitors are requesting clear rules.
A the way in which he was trained.
B the fact that he’s adventurous by nature.
C the amount of experience he has.