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Unit 15




Assimilation

Main Theoretical Concepts:

Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present - day pronunciation is called living.

Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history of the language is called historical.

e.g. question ['kwestjǝn] → ['kwesʧn]

As far as the direction of assimilation is concerned it can be:

1. progressive (A → B), when the 1st of the 2 sounds affected by the assimilation makes the second sound similar to itself

e.g. what's this - [z] is replaced by [s] under the influence of [t]

2. regressive (A←B), when the preceding consonant is influenced by the one following it.

e.g. news , newspaper - [z] → [s] under the influence of [p]

3. reciprocal, double (A↔B), when two adjacent consonants influence each other

e.g. twenty ['twentI] - [t] becomes labialized under the influence of [w]. [w] is assimilated to the voiceless plosive [t] and is partly devoiced.

Assimilation may be of three degrees:

1. complete: the articulation of the assimilated consonant fully coincides with that of the assimilating one

e.g. horse - shoe (horse + shoe ) - [s] changes into [s]

does she - [z] → [S] in rapid speech

2. partial: the assimilated consonant retains its main phonemic features and becomes only partly similar in some feature of its articulation to the assimilating sound.

e.g. [t, d, n, l, s, z] are assimilated to the dental consonants [t, d]

3. intermediate: the assimilated consonant changes into a different sound but does not coincide with the assimilating consonant.

e.g. goose , gooseberry - [s] [z] under the influence of [b]

Assimilation is called contextual if the articulation of a word is changed in combination with other words

e.g. news, newspaper, horse-shoe, etc.

The modification can be conditioned: a) by the complementary distribution of the phonemes; b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at the junction of words; c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial.

 

 

SECTION II

LISTENING COMPREHENSION

Unit 1

Topic of the report: Parts of the world (continents, oceans).

Listening: Round the world. Guess the country.

Task: You will hear three guessing games. One person thinks of a country, and says two or three things about it. The others try to guess the country. Listen to the tape and, every time there is a pause, try to guess the country.

After listening to the dialogs twice, reproduce them from the third person singular.

Words:the Caribbean

the Mediterranean

Iceland

mountainous

to be divided

jungles

 

Unit 2

Topic of the report: Spiders: tarantula, black widow.

Listening: Tarantula. One day in California. Fear of spiders.

Task: You will hear four extracts about spiders. After listening to it, mark the facts about tarantulas in the table. Which do you think are true? Write yes or no in column A and B.

Facts A B
Tarantulas are the biggest of all spiders.    
Black widow spiders are more dangerous than tarantulas.    
Tarantulas can bite.    
Tarantulas are poisonous.    
Pet rabbits are more dangerous than tarantulas.    
Most snakes are poisonous.    
Most spiders are poisonous.    

After listening to the stories twice, reproduce them from the third person singular.

Words:

tarantula

sandhills

black widow

bite

poisonous

jogging

dangerous

hairy

harmless

spider

Topic of the report for the next listening: Tell about embarrassing situations that have ever happened to you.

Here are some examples:

- After a meal in a restaurant, you realise you have no money with you.

- You see someone youve met before, and you cant remember their name.

- You forget a close friends birthday.

- etc.

Unit 3.

Topic of the report: Tell about embarrassing situations that have ever happened to you.

Listening: Embarrassing moments. Sunday afternoon.

 

Task: You will hear a woman telling a story about an embarrassing occasion. The story is in eight sections. Each time the tape stops, try to guess what will happen in the next section, and complete the sentences.

Section 2 Suddenly I heard

Section 3 I opened the door, and I saw

Section 4 They said

Section 5 So I

Section 6 When my husband came back

Section 7 Then we discovered that

Section 8 So they

After listening to the story twice, reproduce it from the third person singular.

Words:

vehicle

knocking on the door

elderly ladies

cardigan

obviously

good gracious

to go mad

to chat

red-faced

Unit 4.

Listening: Embarrassing moments. Two stories.

Task: You will hear two stories about embarrassing situations. After listening to the stories twice, answer the questions below in the written form.

Story A

Where was the speaker? Why was she there?

What time of year was it? What was the weather like?

What were other people doing?

What did the dogs do?

Story B

Where was the speaker?

Why was he there?

Who did he see?

What did she look like?

What did he decide to do?

Was she his friend?

Words:

to walk a dog

to creep up

blonde

to tug ones hair

knickers

to be pleased at

middle-aged

Topic of the report for the next listening: Reasons of global warming and its consequences.

 

Unit 5.

Topic of the report: Reasons of global warming and its consequences.

Listening:FC, 2008: Test 1, Paper 4, Part 1.

Task:You will hear people talking in four different situations twice. For questions 1-4, choose the best answer (A, B or C).

 

1. You overhear a woman recommending a campsite.

Why does she recommend it?

A Its close to tourist attractions.

B Its in an area of natural beauty.

C It has a wide range of facilities.

 

2. You overhear two friends talking about global warming.

How does the girl feel about it?

A pessimistic about the future

B surprised at the effects its having

C unconvinced that theres a problem

 

3. You overhear a young couple talking about moving to the country.

Why does the man object to the idea?

A He wouldnt be able to work there.

B Hed miss the facilities of the city.

C He wouldnt be near to his friends.

 

4. You hear a part of a radio programme about food.

Why should listeners call the programme?

A to take part in a recipe competition

B to find out about a cookery course

C to ask questions about cooking

Words:

campsite

stunning views

wave

to surf

well-meaning friends

to drop in

award-winning books

nutritionist

canteen

survey

admin tasksTopic of the report for the next listening: Snow-kiting as a winter sport

Unit 6

Topic of the report: Snow-kiting as a winter sport

Listening:FC, 2008: Test 1, Paper 4, Part 1.

Task:You will hear people talking in 4 different situations twice. For questions 5-8, choose the best answer (A, B or C).

1. You hear the beginning of a programme about college canteens.

What point is being made about them?

A The choice of food has improved.

B Students like the food on offer there.

C Teachers complain about the quality of the food.

 

2. You hear a young woman talking about her career.

Why did she accept a job in a bookshop?

A She needed a steady income.

B She thought it would be enjoyable.

C She hoped to improve certain skills.

 

3. You hear part of a programme about a clothes designer.

What does the woman like about the clothes he designs?

A They are practical.

B They are colourful.

C They are original.

 

4. You overhear a discussion about the sport of snow-kiting.

What does the man say about it?

A Its easier to learn than other winter sports.

B Its more dangerous than other winter sports.

C It requires less equipment than other winter sports.

Words:

to praise to the sky

catwalk

nursery slopes

to err

Topic of the report for the next listening: Tell about 2-3 party games you know. Answer the following:

- What do you need to play it?

- How many people do you need?

- How do you play it?

- How do you win?

Unit 7

Topic of the report: Tell about 2-3 party games you know.

Listening:Childhood.Party games.

Task:You will hear children describing the four games. After listening to the tape, complete the table below.

  Game
You all sit in a circle. B,C
One person has to leave the room.  
You choose a friend to play the game with.  
You have to be as quick as you can.  
You have to wait your turn.  
The first person to finish is the winner.  
You usually get in a terrible mess.  

After the second listening reproduce the rules of the games.

Words:

thimble

dice

gloves

raw eggs

hard-boiled eggs

to crack

to get messy

roll of toilet paper

to wrap up

 

Topic of the report for the next listening: Shakespeare play Macbeth. Its success and tragedy.

Unit 8

Topic of the report: Shakespeare play Macbeth. Its success and tragedy.

Listening:Believe it or not. Macbeth.

Task:You will hear a woman talking about a superstition that is common among actors in the theater. Listen to the tape twice and answer the questions:

  1. What is the superstition about?
  2. How can one avoid its power?
  3. How can the spells be broken? Which of these things are mentioned?

- turn round three times

- say Macbeth backwards

- say Sorry

- knock on the door

- swear

- shrug ones shoulders

- leave the room

- leave the theaterWhat are the reasons of the superstition according to the speakers opinion?

Words:

superstition

to break the spell

dressing room

in a clockwise direction

to swear

to shrug off

shield

to behead

to get stabbed

sleepwalking

Topic of the report for the next listening: Hot- air balloon trips.

Unit 9

Topic of the report:Hot-air balloon trips.

Listening:FC, 2008: Test 2, Paper 4, Part 4.

Task:You will hear an interview with Patric Shaw, who works as a pilot for a company that organises hot-air balloon trips, twice. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer (A, B or C).

 

  1. According to Patrick, what worries people most when they take a balloon trip?

A how far the wind will take them

B whether they will hit some obstacle

C what the experience of landing will be like

 

  1. Why does Patrick recommend joining the ground crew?

A Its the best way of learning about balloons.

B It provides some experience of flying a balloon.

C It can be a fun way of earning extra income.

 

  1. What makes the job of the ground crew particularly difficult?

A poor communication with the pilot

B unpredictable weather conditions

C the nervousness of the passengers

 

  1. Patrick says that all members of the ground crew must

A be physically strong.

B have good social skills.

C know their area well.

 

  1. Patrick finds it unsatisfactory when new crew members

A fail to cooperate with each other.

B distract him with unnecessary questions.

C dont accept the way things should be done.

 

  1. What does Patrick say about balloon competitions?

A It is often difficult to determine who has won.

B The finishing target area is often unmarked.

C Some competitors are requesting clear rules.

 

  1. Patrick thinks his particular skills as a pilot result from

A the way in which he was trained.

B the fact that hes adventurous by nature.

C the amount of experience he has.

Words:







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