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Organs of speech. Their functions




The organs of speech are as following:

1. the diaphragm

2. the lungs

3. the wind pipe

4. the larynx (Fig 1.1)

5. the vocal cords (Fig 1.2)

6. the pharynx (Fig 1.3)

7. the lips (Fig 1.8)

8. the teeth (Fig 1.7)

9. the alveolar ridge(Fig.2.9)

10. the hard palate (Fig.2.10)

11. the soft palate (Fig.2.11)

12. the uvula (Fig.2.12)

13. the blade of the tongue with the tip (Fig.3.13; 3.14)

14. the front of the tongue (Fig.3.15)

15. the back of the tongue (Fig.3.16)

16. the glottis (Fig 1.2)

17. the mouth cavity

18. the nasal cavity (Fig 1.6)

19. the lower jaw

 

The organs of speech are divided into movable (active articulators) and fixed (passive articulators). The movable speech organs can be moved into contact with other articulators, such as the tongue.

The fixed organs of speech (which are fixed in place, such as the teeth, the hard palate and the alveolar ridge) with the help of which the active organs form obstruction are called passive organs of speech. The passive organs serve as points of articulation.

From the lungs the air gets into the windpipe, at the top of which there is the larynx with the vocal cords. The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. Then the air passes into the pharynx, the mouth and the nasal cavities. The mouth and the nasal cavities are separated by the hard palate and the soft palate with the uvula. The soft palate can move and block off the nasal cavity. Most speech sounds are pronounced with the soft palate raised, if it is lowered the air passes out through the nasal cavity [m, n, ŋ]. In the mouth the lips, the teeth, the tongue with all its parts help to produce sounds.

 







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