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One of the first contributors to mining and geology was the great Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov who connected the study of minerals and rocks with chemi&uy and physics, discovered and formulated the laws' of mining ventilation and mining geometry.
Among the most prominent geologists are A. P. Karpinsky, V.A. Ob-ruchev, A.Y. Fersman, I.M. Gubkin and many others. Academician A.Y. Fersman ranks among those leading mineralogists who converted mineralogy from a purely descriptive science into a science based on the most fundamental chemical investigations. As the organizer of the Geochemical Institute in Moscow, Academician A.Y. Fersman worked out the basic lines of the study of chemical elements and laid the foundation for the scientific surveying and prospecting for useful minerals. A number of scientific expeditions to different parts of the country were organized by him. He was the leader of the important investigations in the Kara-Kum Desert resulting in the discovery of2 big sulphur deposits, the construction of a large preparation plant for the processing of sulphur and sulphur products. Academician A.Y. Fersman led the expedition to Central Asia, the Urals, the Altai, the Caucasus and the Crimea. He is especially known for his detailed investigations of the Kola Peninsula which led to the discovery of enormous apatite deposits and the development of a mining-industrial region in the Khibiny Mountains where new towns came into being.
Among those who contributed to the development of mining are B.I. Boky, M.M. Protodyakonov, A.A. Skochinsky, N.V. Melnikovand others. Professor B.I. Boky's name is associated with the solution of a number of significant technical problems in the mining industry of the country and with the whole trend in the development of the science of mining — the analytical method of designing new collieries.
Credit for working out the theoretical principles of the exploration of deposits is due to Prof. M.M. Prptodyakonov. His most remarkable works are those concerning the problems of underground pressure and mine timbering.3 Prof. M.M. Protodyakonov founded a school for the study of rock pressure and its influence on mine timbering.
The leading organization in working out theoretical problems connected with mining in Russia is the Mining Institute of the Academy of Sciences named after Alexander Skochinsky (the director of which he was for many years). A.A. Skochinsky's deep interest in theoretical problems was always combined with wide engineering experience. He took a special interest in mining aerology. He discovered the laws of the movement and control of the movement of air and gases underground. His works are devoted to localization, liquidation and prevention of underground fires.
Academician N.V. Melnikov is well known for his research in the field of open-cast mining not only of coal but also of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other minerals. He was engaged in the study of fuel energy resources and their utilization.
Prof. I.M. Gubkin's work embraced different fields of geology. He studied geological formations in Russia but he particularly took an interest in the oil deposits of the country and determined the stratigraphy and tectonics of oil layers.4 Gubkin was the first professor of the geology of oil deposits at the Moscow Mining Institute, of which he afterwards became the rector. He founded the Institute of Research in Petroleum of which he was the head for a long time. He gave lectures on the geology of oil deposits, creating a school of numerous pupils now engaged in studying and prospecting for oil on the territory of Russia. Gubkin directed mining operations* in the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly which led to the discovery of big deposits of iron ore at a depth of 200-300 metres from the surface.
He was elected Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In the Academy he founded the Institute of Combustible Minerals' and became its director. Prof. I.M. Gubkin took an active part in compiling geological maps of the country. He was the author of a hundred and fifty scientific works. One of his last works written before his death was Estimated Oil Reserves of the Soviet Union. I.M. Gubkin made a great contribution to the development of the science of geology.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
1 discovered and formulated the laws— открыл и сформулировал законы
2 resulting in the discovery of— врезультате которых были открыты
3 underground pressure and mine timbering— горное давление и рудничное
4 stratigraphy and tectonics of oil layers— стратиграфия и тектоника нефтяных
5 to direct mining operations— руководить горными работами
6 combustible minerals— горючие минералы
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