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Business letter components and their characteristics

1. Letterhead with the Sender’s or Return Address and the date- печатный бланк письма(печатный фирменный бланк) с информацией об отправителе, обратным адресом и датой

2. Inside Address – имя и адрес получателя

3. References – личный, персональный код сотрудника

4. Attention Line / Private or Confidential –перечень инстанций, которым надлежит принять документ к сведению/ не являющийся доступным для всех - конфиденциальный

5. Salutation –приветствие

6. Subject Line – строка темы

7. Body – основное содержание

8. Complimentary Close – выражение вежливости, которым заканчивается письмо

9. Signatures- подпись

10. Enclosure Lines – приложение к письму/ɪnˈkləʊʒə(r)/

11. Copy Line –строки оригинала


6) What are the formats of business letters? What are the differences between them?

· the full block style - everything is flush with the left margin. Full block letters are a little more formal than modified block letters.

· the modified block style - The main characteristic of modified block letters is that everything is flush with the left margin (except the sender’s address, date, references, complimentary close, signatures and your title). Modified block letters are a little less formal than full block letters.

· the modified semi–block style – the same as modified block letters, except the paragraphs are indented. Modifies semi-block letters are less formal than full block letters


7) What are the main rules for successful business letter writing? Characterize each of them.

1. State the main business, purpose or subject matter right away

2. Identify the letter by its subject and date in the first paragraph or sentence

3. Keep the paragraphs of most business letters short

4. “Compartmentalize” the contents of your letter

5. Place important information strategically in business letters

6. Find positive ways to express bad news in your business letter

7. Focus on the recipient’s needs, purposes or interests instead of your own

8. Give your business letter an “action ending” whenever appropriate

9. Length

10. Keep your sentence average length low

11. Use simple words rather than complex ones

12. Order and sequence

13. Use active verbs rather than passive verbs

14. Prepositions


8) What are seven c’s that you should follow?

Follow the seven c's. Each letter/memorandum should be:

  • Clear
  • Concise
  • Correct
  • Courteous
  • Conversational
  • Convincing
  • Complete


9) What is memo? What differs a memo from a business letter?

Memorandums are written internal communications which advise or inform employees of policies and procedures that their company has decided to adopt. The memo may be put on a notice board for everyone to see, or circulated in internal mail to the departments it concerns. In the latter case, the employee usually signs the memorandum to acknowledge that he/she has read it. There are numerous subjects that memos deal with, from informing staff of a retirement, to announcing important administrative or structural changes in the company.

Memos can be as formal as a business letter. However, the heading and overall tone make a memo different from a business letter. Because you generally send memos to co-workers and colleagues, you do not have to include a formal salutation or closing remark.


10) The format guidelines for memos and the types of memos?

  • Memos have one-inch margins around the page and are on plain paper
  • All lines of the memo begin at the left margin
  • The text begins two spaces after the subject line
  • The body of the memo is single-spaced, with two spaces between paragraphs
  • Second-page headings are used, as in business letters (it includes who the Memo is to, the page number, and the date)
  • The sender usually signs the Memo using initials, first name, or complete name.


Each memo is written for a specific purpose to a specific audience. The purpose and audience for your memo will help guide what type of memo you will write.

  • directive memos - A directive memo states a policy or procedure you want the reader or co-worker to follow
  • response memos - The purpose of this memo is to provide the audience with desired information. It usually has four parts: purpose statement, summary, discussion, action
  • trip report memos - A trip report memo is usually sent to a supervisor after an employee returns from a business venture.
  • field report memos - Memos are often used to report on inspection and procedures. These memos, known as field or lab reports, include the problem, methods, results, and conclusions, but spend less time on the methods section. Structure: purpose of memo, summary , problem leading to the decision to perform the procedure, methods, results, conclusions, recommendations


11) The sales letter and its job?

A sales letter is a document designed to generate sales. It persuades the reader to place an order; to request additional information; or to lend support to the product or service or cause being offered. It influences the reader to take a specific action by making an offer – not an announcement – to him.

The job of the sales letter is to sell, not to tell. The letter alone does not always do the entire selling (persuading) job.


12) What is people’s motivation to buy based on and what does it mean for writing a sales letter?

There are only two things that truly motivate people and they are the promise of gain or the fear of loss. Of the two, the fear of loss is the stronger motivator.

Ultimate motivations are what people “really” want. The product or service is just a vehicle to providing these benefits so make sure your sales letter focuses on these motivational factors.


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