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Make up word combinations to illustrate the usage of these words.

6.Translate into English:

Білль про права 1689 року був одним з досягнень англійського народу у противостоянні Стюартів та Парламенту. Він обмежував монархію та наділяв парламент владою у вирішенні багатьох питань. Англійський Білль про права містив у собі багато ідей стосовно права та держави, які пізніше знайшли відображення у американскій Декларації про незалежність. Білль про права декларував такі традиційні права англійців, як право на суд присяжних, заборону жорстоких покарань, право звертатися з петиціями до владних органів та деякі інші.


7. Translate the text into English:

У 1787 році Джеймсу Мейсону було 36 років. Він навчався у Прінстоні (Princeton), а пізніше був обраний представником у Контінентальний Конгрес. Томас Джеферсон вислав йому з Парижу більше двохсот книг з історії керування державою. Після того, як Мейсон ретельно вивчив їх, він виклав свої висновки у роботі «Недоліки політичної системи Сполучених Штатів» (“Vices of the Political System of the United States”). Мейсон вважав, що державне керування буде ефективним лише у тому випадку, коли урядовці будуть змушені враховувати інтереси різних соціальних груп.

Джеймс Мейсон був пізніше обраний президентом та займав посаду голови держави з 1809 до 1817 року.

8. Pay attention to the sentence containing “neither…nor” structure. Remember that it is used with the affirmative verb for emphatic effect of combining two negatives. The idiom “neither here nor there” has the meaning “not important/relevant”

Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

a. Neither threats nor arguments had any effect on him.

b. They said that the room was comfortable and bright but it was neither comfortable nor bright.

c. He neither wrote nor phoned.

d. The fact that she is the president’s daughter is neither here nor there. She will be punished as anybody else.

9. Some adjectives are used with certain prepositions (you can find the example in the text: “different from”)

Check yourself supplying the missing prepositions after the adjectives:

a. He is angry…me.

b. They feel obliged…you.

c. He is sorry…her.

d. They went ahead contrary…my advice.

e. She is busy…the baby at the moment.

f. I am faithful…my principles.

g. You will be late…classes again.

h. Are you aware…cost of this?

i. This service is free…charge.

j. He is not afraid…taking risks.



1. Suggest your ideas on the following statements:

- It has been said that “America is the only true democracy in the western world”. Do you agree?

- Are you interested in politics? Should lawyers be politically active?

- What are the main differences in the Constitutions of the UK, the USA and our country?

- What kinds of monarchy can you name? What are the pluses and minuses of living in the country ruled by king or queen?

- If you were to appoint the members of the Cabinet of Ministers what criteria would you rely on and whose recommendations would you listen to?

NB! For rendering your ideas, you can use inserted components like the one given in the text (“consequently”). Among others “logical connectors” are: to begin with, firstly, secondly, notwithstanding, therefore, concluding the above-mentioned, summarizing this passage, etc.

Unit 2 States, Statutes and Constitutions Section 2 Types and Functions of Constitutions



What is the role of the constitution in establishing

- state and legal structure;

- human rights;

- legal procedures?


Read the text referring to the italicized terms:



Constitutions are the framework for government and may limit or define the authority and procedure of political bodies to execute new laws and regulations. Not all nation states have codified constitutions though all law-governed states have law of land consisting of various imperative and consensual rules. They may include common law, conventions, statutory law and international rules.

Codified constitutions are considered rulemaking fundamentals, or rules about making rules to exercise power. They govern the relationships among the judiciary, the legislature and the executive bodies. One of the key tasks of constitutions within this context is to indicate hierarchies of power. For example, in a unitary state the constitution will vest ultimate authority in the central administration and legislature, and judiciary, though there is often a delegation of authority to local or municipal bodies. When a constitution establishes a federal state it will identify several levels government coexisting with exclusive or shared areas of jurisdiction over lawmaking, application and enforcement.

Human rights or liberties for citizens form a crucial part of a country’s constitution and govern the rights of the individual against the state. Most jurisdictions, like the United States, Ukraine and France, have a single codified constitution. A recent example is the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which was intended to be included in the Treaty establishing a Constitution of Europe.

Some countries, like the United Kingdom, have no entrenched document setting out the fundamental rights – in this jurisdiction the constitution is composed of statute, case law and convention. Inspired by a famous philosopher John Locke, the fundamental constitutional principle is that the individual can do anything but that is forbidden by law, while state may do nothing but that is which authorized by law.

The function of codified constitution is also to describe the procedure by which parliaments may legislate. For instance, special majorities may be required to alter the constitution. In two-chamber legislatures there may be a process laid out for second or third readings of bills before a new law can be passed.



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