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I. WARMING - UP
1. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is it important for a lawyer to be highly educated?
2. Why are the lawyers needed in the human society?
3. Do you agree that education of a good legal specialist must never stop? Why?
2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:
Read the text to understand what information on legal education in Ukraine is of primary importance or new for you.
LEGAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE
Postgraduate education (Candidate's or Doctor's Degree) –освіта, спрямована на отримання наукового ступіня кандидата або доктора наук.
The Law of Ukraine “On Education” –закон України „Про освіту” (№ 1060 – XII).
The Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” –закон України „Про вищу освіту” (№ 2984 – III).
A professional licence –дозвіл на здійснення професійної діяльності.
Requirements to the contents, scope and levelof the educational and professional training in Ukraine are determined by the Law of Ukraine “On Education” of 1991. The Law establishes a four level system of higher education and defines qualification requirements for junior specialists and bachelor degree holders (basic higher education), specialists and master degree holders (complete higher education). The system of education also includespostgraduate education (Candidate's or Doctor's Degree).
As the legal profession becomes very prestigious and much in demand, a large network of legal educational institutions and faculties has been established in Ukraine recently. The higher educational establishments (HEE) that train lawyers in Ukraine include: technicums, colleges, institutes, academies, universities and other establishments. HEE have four degrees of accreditation based on their status:
– the first degree – technicum or other HEE of the equal status;
Legal education in Ukraine is centred in the state and private colleges and universities. The four year education gives a bachelor’s degree; graduates after five year studies receive a certificate of a specialist. Everybody has a possibility to continue his/her education and scientific research at the master’s andpostgraduate courses.
Higher education graduates are awarded qualifications of the appropriate educational-proficiency levels and they are granted diplomas of the state format. The Diploma is a state-recognized document which serves as both an educational certificate and a professional licence. It confirms the attainment of the appropriate higher educational level and a certain professional qualification in some speciality. The Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” (2002) establishes the following types of documents that confirm higher education qualifications:
Dyplom Molodshoho Spetsialista (Diploma/ qualification of Junior Specialist),
Dyplom Bakalavra (Diploma/ qualification of Bachelor),
Dyplom Spetsialista (Diploma/ qualification of Specialist),
Dyplom Mahistra (Diploma/ qualification of Master).
At the postgraduate level Ukraine has a two-degree system. The first qualification is the Candidate of Sciences (a scientific degree of Kandidat Nauk). It normally requiresat least three years of postgraduate study (aspirantura) after the award of the Specialist or the Master diploma. For this qualification a thesis (dissertation) must besubmitted and defended. The second qualification is the Doctor of Sciences (a scientific degree of Doktor Nauk), the highest scientific degree in Ukraine. This qualification requires some period of studies (doktorantura) following the award of Kandidat Nauk degree. The dissertation for this degree must make an original contribution to a certain field of science.
A public defence of the dissertation is held in the form of a public presentation and scientific debates.